Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
DefinitionPremenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) occurs just prior to menstruation and is characterized by significant:
CausesThe exact cause is not known.
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your chance of PMDD include:
- Hormonal changes
- Family history of PMDD
- Extra stress or a traumatic life event
- Depression or another mental health condition
|Microscopic View of Hormone Receptor|
|Menstruation causes many hormonal changes, which may play a role in PMDD.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
SymptomsPMDD may cause:
- Extreme sadness
- Frequent crying
- Unusually strong cravings for certain foods
- Difficulty concentrating or paying attention
- Panic attacks
- Mood swings
- Fatigue or lack of energy
- Physical symptoms, such as sore breasts, headaches, joint or muscle pain, swelling, or bloating
DiagnosisYour doctor will diagnose PMDD based on your symptoms. You may be asked to keep a record of when your symptoms occur and how severe they are.Your doctor may also order:
- Blood tests
- Tests to check hormone levels
TreatmentTalk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Lifestyle ChangesThese steps can help manage symptoms of PMDD:
- Exercise throughout the week.
- Get plenty of rest.
- Eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Avoid alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine.
- Learn stress management techniques.
- Improve your sleep habits.
MedicationsPMDD may be treated with:
- Oral contraceptives
- Nutritional supplements
PreventionTo help reduce your chance of PMDD, take these steps:
- Get plenty of exercise and rest
- Eat a well-balanced diet
- Manage stress
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Office on Women's Health
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
PMS and PMDD. MGH Center for Women's Health website. Available at: http://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder.html. Updated April 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 8, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/30/2013
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