Conditions InDepth: Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a hormone normally produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps your body convert food into energy. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) from food cannot enter cells, and glucose builds up in the blood. Your body tissues become starved for energy.Type 2 diabetes is primarily a disorder in which the cells are not responding to the high levels of insulin circulating in the body. The body becomes increasingly resistant to insulin. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the over-worked beta cells of the pancreas start to make less insulin.
|How Type 2 Diabetes Occurs|
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- Fat, muscle, or liver cells do not respond to the high levels of insulin (called insulin resistance)
- Beta cells in the pancreas do not make enough insulinrelative to the demands of the body
- In the short-term:
- Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose)
- Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose)
- In the long-term:
Diabetes overview. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/overview/index.aspx . Updated April 4, 2012. Accessed August 7, 2012.
Type 2. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/?loc=DropDownDB-type2 . Accessed August 7, 2012.
- Reviewer: Kim A. Carmichael, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 09/2014
- Update Date: 09/17/2014