Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition. It is possible to develop type 1 diabetes with or without the risk factors listed below. There are no known definite risk factors. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes. The main risk factors include the following:
Family HistoryIf you have a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes, you (or your child) are at greater risk of having it, too. Scientists continue to believe that genetic factors play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but which genes is unclear.
Autoimmune ConditionsType 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, caused by the body's immune system attacking the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. You may be at a greater risk of developing type 1 diabetes if you have another condition that affects the immune system, such as:
- Hashimotos disease
- Graves disease
- Addisons disease
- Pernicious anemia
- Celiac disease
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Crohns disease
- Viruses: mumps , hepatitis , cytomegalovirus
Ethnic BackgroundYou are at an increased risk of type 1 diabetes if your ethnicity is:
- Northern European
- African American
Other Risk FactorsOther factors that may increase your child's risk of type 1 diabetes include:
- Cystic fibrosis
- Bottle-feeding or short duration of breastfeeding
- High birth weight
- Obesity during childhood
- Mothers age at childbirth (over 35 years)
Diabetes causes. National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseaseswebsite. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/causes/index.aspx. Accessed December 31, 2012.
Diabetes type 1. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated December 28, 2012. Accessed December 31, 2012.
Schatz D, Krischer J, et al. Islet cell antibodies predict insulin-dependent diabetes in United States school age children as powerfully as in unaffected relatives. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:2403-2407.
TRIGR study: a new trial investigates environmental triggers in type 1 diabetes [press release]. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International website. Available at: http://www.jdrf.org. August 7, 2002. Accessed December 31, 2012.
Type 1 diabetes. American Diabetes Associationwebsite. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-1/?loc=DropDownDB-type1. Accessed December 31, 2012.
3/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Cardwell CR, Stene LC, et al. Birthweight and the risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies using individual patient data. Diabetologia. 2010 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]
3/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Cardwell CR, Stene LC, et al. Maternal age at birth and childhood type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of 30 observational studies. Diabetes. 2010;59(2):486-494.
4/1/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/: Verbeeten KC, Elks CE, et al.Association between childhood obesity and subsequent Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2011;28(1):10-18.
- Reviewer: Kim A. Carmichael, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 09/2014
- Update Date: 09/17/2014
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