Conditions InDepth: Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder usually caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas resulting in the body’s inability to produce sufficient insulin to meet bodily needs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the body to use sugar for energy. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) from the carbohydrate food you eat cannot enter cells. This causes glucose to build up in the blood, leaving your body cells and tissues starved for energy. While a variety of tissue transplantation techniques are under development and some genetically-based treatments have been proposed, at this point in time, the only widely-available treatment for type 1 diabetes is the injection of insulin.
|How Type 1 Diabetes Occurs|
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- People with chronic type 2 diabetes who lose the ability to make insulin.
- Some with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery. They may lose the cells that make insulin.
- People with cystic fibrosis.
- High blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which is the result of too much insulin
- Kidney disease
- Heart disease
- Nerve disease, which can lead to amputations
- Vascular disease of the lower extremities
- Early death
Diabetes causes. National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseaseswebsite. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/causes/index.aspx. Accessed December 31, 2012.
Diabetes type 1. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated December 28, 2012. Accessed December 31, 2012.
Type 1 diabetes. American Diabetes Associationwebsite. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-1/?loc=DropDownDB-type1. Accessed December 31, 2012.
- Reviewer: Kim A. Carmichael, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 09/2014
- Update Date: 09/17/2014