Risk Factors for Sleep Apnea
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.It is possible to develop sleep apnea with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing sleep apnea. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.Risk factors for sleep apnea include:
SmokingPeople who smoke more than two packs per day are more likely to develop sleep apnea than nonsmokers.
AlcoholSome studies have shown that people who use alcohol regularly have an increased risk of sleep apnea.
Sedative MedicationsUsing sedative medications can increase your risk of sleep apnea.
Medical ConditionsThe following conditions may increase your risk of obstructive sleep apnea:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- High blood pressure
- Facial deformities
- Esophageal reflux
- Enlarged tonsils or adenoids
- Chronic respiratory tract conditions, such as:
- Bulbar poliomyelitis
- Neurodegenerative diseases
- Problems after cervical spine surgery
- Primary hypoventilation syndrome
- Brain tumors
- Down syndrome
GenderMen are thought to be 2 to 4 times more likely to develop sleep apnea than women. However, some researchers have suggested that this difference may be because women are underdiagnosed with the condition.
Genetic FactorsSleep apnea appears to run in certain families.
Ethnic BackgroundSleep apnea is more common among:
- African Americans
- People of Mexican origin
- Pacific Islanders
Physical CharacteristicsYou have an increased risk of developing sleep apnea if you have the following physical characteristics:
- Thick neck
- Obstructed nasal passages
- Large tongue
- Narrow airway
- Receding chin
- Certain shapes and increased rigidity of the palate and jaw
NINDS sleep apnea information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/sleep%5Fapnea/sleep%5Fapnea.htm. Updated December 28, 2010. Accessed June 3, 2013.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated May 23, 2013. Accessed June 3, 2013.
Sleep apnea. American Sleep Apnea Association website. Available at: http://www.sleepapnea.org/learn/sleep-apnea.html. Accessed June 3, 2013.
What is sleep apnea? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/SleepApnea/SleepApnea%5FSummary.html. Updated July 10, 2012. Accessed June 3, 2013.
Who is at risk for sleep apnea. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/SleepApnea/SleepApnea%5FWhatIs.html. Updated July 10, 2012. Accessed June 3, 2013.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 05/28/2014