Focal Dystonia


Focal dystonia is an irregular movement disorder specific to one part of the body. In dystonia, muscle contractions cause irregular movements, twitches, tics, and twisted or repetitive postures. These may be continuous or off and on. The most common types of focal dystonia are:
  • Blepharospasm—an eye twitch
  • Cervical dystonia or spasmodic torticollis—affecting the neck
  • Segmental cranial dystonia, also known as Meige syndrome—affecting the jaw, tongue and eyes
  • Oromandibular dystonia—affecting the jaw
  • Spasmodic dysphonia—affecting the vocal cords
  • Axial dystonia—affecting the trunk
  • Dystonia of the hand/arm, such as writer's cramp


In many cases, the cause of primary dystonia is not known. In others, it may be genetic.Secondary dystonia is caused by an existing health condition, injury, or genetic disorder. Some of these include:
The Process of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Decreasing Available Oxygen
Carbon monoxide poisoning
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Risk Factors

Family history increases your chance of developing primary dystonia.Having a specific health condition, injury, or genetic disorder increases your chance of developing secondary dystonia.


Symptoms may include:
  • Eyelid spasms
  • Rapid or uncontrollable blinking of both eyes
  • Neck twisting
  • Difficulty writing
  • Foot cramps
  • Pulling or dragging of a foot
  • Tremor
  • Voice or speech difficulties
Factors that may worsen dystonia include:
  • Excitement or agitation
  • Stress
  • Talking
  • Fatigue

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