Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Because ADHD develops during childhood, the information presented here focuses on children. The primary symptoms of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. At some time in their lives, all children are inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive. However, children with ADHD have symptoms that are noticeably more severe and consistent. They have difficulty in school and with their family and peer relationships. There are several different types of ADHD. Some children are mainly inattentive and don't display signs of hyperactivity (classic attention deficit disorder [ADD]). However, some are hyperactive, some are impulsive, and others exhibit a mixture of these symptoms.Behaviors linked to ADHD can last into adulthood, often resulting in problems with relationships and employment. Specific symptoms include:
- Inattentive (classic ADD)
- Easily distracted by sights and sounds
- Doesn't pay attention to detail
- Doesn't seem to listen when spoken to
- Makes careless mistakes
- Doesn't follow through on instructions or tasks
- Avoids or dislikes activities that require longer periods of mental effort
- Loses or forgets items necessary for tasks
- Is forgetful in day-to-day activities
- Has difficulty organizing tasks
- Hyperfocuses on certain activities
- Has difficulty with transitions
- Is restless, fidgets, and squirms
- Runs and climbs and is not able to stay seated
- Has difficulty playing quietly
- Talks excessively
- Blurts out answers before hearing the entire question
- Interrupts others
- Has difficulty waiting in line or waiting for turn
- Combined (most common type)
- Has a combination of the above symptoms
- Conduct disorder
- Substance abuse
- Learning disorders
- Tic disorder ( Tourette Syndrome )
- Bipolar disorder
- Trouble sleeping
- Encopresis—leaking stool
- Enuresis—inability to control urination
- Cigarette use
Ability to quit smoking may depend on ADHD symptoms, researchers find. Science Daily website. Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/11/081121125602.htm. Published November 24, 2008. Accessed October 16, 2009.
ADHD. The Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/adhd.html. Accessed August 14, 2012.
ADHD basics. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/adhd/Pages/ADHD-Basics.aspx. Accessed August 14, 2012.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated April 11, 2012. Accessed August 14, 2012.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated April 25, 2012. Accessed August 14, 2012.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/what-is-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder.shtml. Accessed August 14, 2012.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Management. American Family Physician. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd.html. Accessed August 14, 2012.
Rappley MD. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:165-173.
Stern T, Rosenbaum J, et al. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2008.
10/12/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php: Cortese S, Faraone SV, et al. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48:894-908.
10/16/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php: Wilens TE, Vitulano M, et al. Cigarette smoking associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr. 2008;153:414-419.
10/10/2013 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php: Mellon M, Natchey B, et al. Incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population-based cohort. Acad Pediatr. 2013 Jul-Aug;13(4):322-327.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 09/2014
- Update Date: 09/17/2014
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