What Is Rabies?Rabies is an infection caused by a virus. This virus is almost always fatal unless it is treated before symptoms appear. It affects the central nervous system. People usually get rabies through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. Wild animals in the US that commonly carry the virus include bats, raccoons, skunks, foxes, and coyotes. Dogs, cats, and other domestic animals can also carry the disease. The rabies virus is found in the saliva, brain, or nervous tissue of infected animals. In the US, rabies in humans is rare. It is more common in other countries.Rabies symptoms include:
- Flu-like symptoms, such as headache, fever, and fatigue
- Pain, tingling, or itching at the site of the bite wound or other site of viral entry
- An increase in saliva
- Painful spasms and contractions of the throat when swallowing
- Erratic, excited, or bizarre behavior
What Is the Rabies Vaccine?The vaccine is made from killed rabies virus. It is given by injection.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?There are 2 reasons someone should get the rabies vaccines:
- Preventive vaccination
- Vaccination after exposure
Preventive VaccinationThis is for people at high risk of exposure to rabies, such as:
- Veterinarians and animal handlers
- Rabies laboratory workers
- People who explore caves
- Travelers who may come in contact with rabid animals
Vaccination After ExposureThis vaccination is given to anyone who has been bitten by an animal or was exposed to rabies. This treatment includes 4 doses of rabies vaccine. One dose is given right away. Three more doses are given on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days. (Persons who are immunosuppressed should receive 5 doses of vaccine). A shot of rabies-specific immune globulin (RIG) should be given along with the first dose. Two doses are given for people who have been vaccinated before. One dose is given right away and another is given on the third day. RIG is considered unnecessary for people who previously received a complete vaccination series with a cell-culture vaccine or who previously had a documented adequate rabies virus-neutralizing antibody titer following vaccination with noncell-culture vaccine.