DefinitionSleepwalking is a type of sleep disorder. A person who is sleepwalking may walk around or do other complex behaviors while still asleep. It may be as simple as sitting up in bed or as complex as leaving the house and going for a drive.
CausesIt is not clear exactly what causes sleepwalking. Some people are more likely to sleepwalk. The sleepwalking may be triggered by:
- Lack of sleep
- Illnesses with fever
- Certain medications such as antidepressants, tranquilizers, anticonvulsants, and antihistamines
- Medical illness such as migraine, asthma, arrhythmia, heartburn, and sleep apnea
- Having a psychiatric disorders such as panic attack or post-traumatic stress syndrome
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your risk of sleepwalking include:
- Family history of sleepwalking
- Being a child—most common in preschool to pre-adolescence
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SymptomsAlong with walking during sleep, other symptoms can include:
- Sitting up in bed and repeating certain movements such as rubbing eyes or fumbling with clothes
- Talking in your sleep
- Difficulty arousing during a sleepwalking episode
- Doing inappropriate behavior during a sleepwalking episode such as urinating in closets
- Becoming violent when a person tries to wake you
- Not remembering the event
DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You will be asked about your:
- Family history
- Underlying illness or stress
TreatmentTalk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Strategies to Prevent InjuryYour doctor will help you prevent injury during sleepwalking by recommending that you:
- Remove dangerous objects from your room
- Keep doors and windows closed and locked
HypnosisSome cases of sleepwalking can be treated with hypnosis.
AwakeningYour doctor will ask you to keep track of what time of night the sleepwalking tends to occur. You then schedule a wake up just before that time. This may help stop the sleepwalking.
MedicationsMedications that may help reduce sleepwalking include:
PreventionTo help reduce the chances of sleepwalking, take the following steps:
- Increase the amount of time scheduled for sleep.
- Avoid alcohol and certain medications that may trigger sleepwalking.
- Have a regular bedtime routine.
American Academy of Family Physicians
National Sleep Foundation
About Kids Health
The Better Sleep Council Canada
Guilleminault C, Kirisoglu C, et al. Adult chronic sleepwalking and its treatment based on polysomnography. Brain. 2005; 128:1062-1069.
Guilleminault C, Palombini L, et al. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: what triggers them?. Pediatrics. 2003;111:17-25.
Hafeez ZH, Kalinowski CM. Somnambulism induced by quetiapine: two case reports and a review of the literature. CNS Spectrums. 2007;12:910-912.
Pressman MR. Factors that predispose, prime and precipitate NREM parasomnias in adults: clinical and forensic implications. Sleep Med Rev. 2007:11:5-30
Sleepwalking. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated January 1, 2011. Accessed June 4, 2013.
Sleepwalking. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/sleepwalking.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed June 4, 2013.
Sleepwalking. National Sleep Foundation website. Available at: http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-related-problems/sleepwalking Accessed June 4, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013
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