DefinitionThe esophagus is a tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Chronic esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a complication of chronic esophagitis. Barrett's esophagus is a change in the cells that line the esophagus. Normal cells are flat-shaped squamous cells. Barrett's esophagus cells are shaped like a column. This cell change is called metaplasia. It is a premalignant phase that may result in esophageal cancer if it is not treated.
CausesThe exact cause of Barrett's esophagus is not known. It may result from damage to the esophagus caused by the chronic reflux of stomach acid. Frequent or chronic reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
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Risk FactorsBarrett's esophagus is more common in Caucasian men and in people aged 50 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of Barrett's esophagus include:
- Chronic heartburn or a history of GERD
- Obesity, especially around the midsection
- Current or history of smoking
- Family history of Barrett's esophagus or esophageal cancer
SymptomsIn some cases Barrett's esophagus may not produce symptoms.Some people with GERD may have the following symptoms:
- Sore throat or chronic cough
- Hoarse voice
- Sour taste in mouth from acid reflux
- Difficulty or pain with swallowing, a condition called dysphagia
- Weight loss
- Fatigue, or difficulty or pain with breathing associated with anemia
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