Hammer Toe Correction

Definition

Hammer toe occurs when there is a shortening of the tendon that controls toe movement. This causes the middle joint of the toe to be bent upward and the outer joint downwards. The misshapen toe resembles a hammer. A hammer toe correction is done to correct a toe deformity called a hammer toe .
Hammer toe
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Reasons for Procedure

A hammertoe correction is considered when:
  • Other treatments have failed to bring about results
  • The affected toe has assumed an awkward position and is causing pain
  • The deformity makes walking difficult
  • The position of the toe causes breakdown of skin. This can increase the risk of developing a bone infection.

Possible Complications

Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have the correction, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Excessive swelling, although the toe will normally be swollen for 4-8 weeks following surgery
  • Anesthesia-related problems
  • Recurrence of hammer toe
  • Nerve or blood vessel injury to the toe
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:

What to Expect

Prior to Procedure

Your doctor will likely do the following:Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to 1 week before the procedure.The day of the procedure:
  • Arrange for a ride to and from the procedure.
  • Arrange for help at home after the procedure.
  • Wear comfortable clothing that is easy to remove.

Anesthesia

Local anesthesia is often used. It will numb the area. Spinal anesthesia may also be used. This anesthesia will make your lower body numb.

Description of the Procedure

Several surgical options are available for hammer toe correction. Some corrections can be made with changes to soft tissue. Others need to be made to the bone or joint.Soft TissueThis is usually best in patients under 30, with limited toe deformity. A cut is made in the skin and the tendon is released. Sometimes it is reattached to a different area of the bone. The changes in soft tissue will allow the toe to relax and eliminate the deformity.BoneTwo common methods of hammer toe correction on the bones themselves are joint arthroplasty and joint fusion. The type of procedure used depends on the deformity. A combination of procedures may be needed. In both cases, a cut in the skin is made over the toe joint.During an arthroplasty, part of the bones on both sides of the middle toe joint may be removed. This will allow the toe to uncurl.During a fusion, the ends of the toe bones are removed. The bones are then repositioned. The repositioning is usually held together with a pin placed within the bone. The pin may be removed after 3-4 weeks. Other changes to the anatomy of the foot due to the hammer toe may also be corrected at this time.The incision will be closed with stitches. Dressings will be applied to hold the toe in proper position.

How Long Will It Take?

This depends on the procedure and the number of toes corrected.

Will It Hurt?

Anesthesia prevents pain during the surgery. You will be given medication to manage pain after the surgery.

Post-procedure Care

At the HospitalRight after the procedure, you will be in a recovery room where your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing will be monitored. Recovery may also include pain medications. During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as:
  • Washing their hands
  • Wearing gloves or masks
  • Keeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as:
  • Washing your hands often and reminding visitors and healthcare providers to do the same
  • Reminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masks
  • Not allowing others to touch your incisions
At HomeWhen you return home, take these steps:
  • Use crutches or wear a special open-toed, wooden-soled shoe, as directed by your doctor.
  • Follow your doctor's instructions.
The corrected toe may be slightly longer or shorter than before surgery. The toe will not move as much as a normal toe. Expect some swelling and redness, which may last for several months. Your dressing may need to be adjusted as swelling decreases. If it appears that the deformity may recur, your doctor may choose to continue with dressings for another 2-4 weeks.Select shoes with plenty of space for your toes. Poorly fitting shoes contribute to hammer toe development.

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