Animal Bites

Definition

An animal bite is a wound caused by the teeth of an animal. The teeth puncture, tear, scratch, bruise, or crush the tissue. The injury can damage skin, nerves, bone, muscle, blood vessels, or joints.

Causes

Most bites occur when an animal has been provoked. Animals with rabies bite without being provoked.

Risk Factors

Most bites occur in children and young adults. Males are affected more often than females. Bites happen more frequently in warmer weather.

Symptoms

Symptoms of a bite include pain and bleeding. Wounds may become infected because of the bacteria normally found in the animal's mouth or a systemic infection of the animal, such as rabies. Wounds may also become infected from microbes on the skin or in the environment. Symptoms of infection include:
  • Redness around the wound
  • Pain
  • Warmth
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Pus oozing from the wound
  • Fever

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about how the bite occurred, the animal that bit you, and your medical history. The doctor will examine the wound and assess damage to any nearby muscles, tendons, nerves, or bones. If the wound appears infected, the doctor may use a sterile swab to remove a sample for testing.Other tests may include:
Dog Bite to Hand
Dog Bite
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Treatment

The goal of treatment is to promote healing, decrease the risk of infection, and prevent complications. If your dog bit you and it has had all its vaccinations, you may be able to treat a minor wound yourself. However, call your provider for medical advice. Receiving medical care within the first 24 hours decreases the chance of infection.Seek medical care in these situations:
  • Bite from any wild animal, such as raccoons, skunks, or bats, which carry rabies
  • Cat or human bites (these are particularly prone to developing rapid and serious infection)
  • Deep or large wound
  • Infection
  • Five or more years since your last tetanus shot
Regardless of the severity of the bite, see a doctor if you have a chronic medical condition, such as:
  • Diabetes
  • Liver disease
  • Heart or lung disease
  • Arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Poor circulation
  • Cancer
  • Immune system deficiency

Self-care

  • Wash the wound with soap and water for at least 5 minutes.
  • Apply pressure with a clean towel to stop the bleeding.
  • If bleeding does not stop within 15 minutes, seek immediate medical care.
  • Place a sterile bandage on the open area.
  • Elevate the wound, keeping the area above the level of your heart to decrease swelling.
  • Keep the bandage clean and dry.
  • Check the wound regularly for signs of infection.

Medical Care

Your doctor can clean the wound, washing the tissue with large amounts of fluid. Debris and dead tissue can be removed. The wound may or may not be closed with stitches. It often is kept open to decrease the risk of infection. After 24 hours, the doctor may use adhesive strips to bring the edges of the wound closer together. Antibiotics may be ordered and a tetanus shot may be given.Be sure to tell your doctor as much as you can about the animal that bit you and the circumstances surrounding the incident. If the identity of the animal is unknown and it cannot be monitored for rabies, you may need to receive treatment to prevent this life-threatening disease.

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