Common Cold

(Viral Rhinitis; Upper Respiratory Tract Infection; URI)


The common cold is an infection that can irritate your nose and throat.
Sore Throat Due to Inflammation
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The common cold is caused by a virus. There are over 200 different viruses that can cause a cold.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of a cold include:
  • Being near someone who has a cold
  • Touching your nose, mouth, or eyes with contaminated fingers
  • Decreased resistance, which can be caused by smoking , second-hand smoke, or stress
  • Allergies or asthma
  • Shorter sleep duration or poor sleep quality


A cold may cause:
  • Sore or scratchy throat
  • Stuffy nose
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy, stuffed sensation in the ears
  • Watery eyes
  • Cough
  • Headache
  • Aches and pains
  • Low energy
  • Fever


The diagnosis is most often based on your symptoms. Generally, tests are not needed to make a diagnosis unless another condition is suspected, such as pneumonia .


A cold usually lasts 10 days or longer. There are no cures for a cold, but treatments can ease symptoms. These include:

Home Care

To make you more comfortable:
  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Warm beverages like tea and chicken soup are soothing. They may also help decrease congestion.
  • Use a humidifier. A cool-mist humidifier will keep your nasal passages moist. Humidifiers may also loosen congestion. Be sure to clean the humidifier every day.
  • Try nasal flushing with a neti-pot or saline spray. This can help loosen mucus.
  • Gargle with warm salt water. It can help soothe a sore throat.

Over-the-Counter Medications

To relieve aches, pains, and fever consider non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Prescription antiviral medication is usually not necessary.Note: Aspirin is not recommended for children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving your child aspirin. Cough and cold remedies include:
  • Decongestants
  • Expectorants
  • Antihistamines
  • Antitussives
  • Throat lozenges
  • Mentholated vapor rubs
Note: Cough and cold medications should not be used in children under 2 years old, and they are not recommended in children under 4 years old. The US Food and Drug Administration has not completed its review regarding the safety of over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children ages 2-11 years. Rare, but serious side effects have been reported. Decongestant pills or nasal sprays can shrink nasal passages. They also decrease mucus production. Nasal sprays should only be used for 2-3 days. Longer use can lead to increased congestion when you stop using the product.

Alternative Treatments

Many people use alternative treatments to relieve their cold symptoms. Some of the more popular choices include:
  • Vitamin C —Taking extra vitamin C at the start of a cold has not been shown to be of any benefit. Some believe that taking vitamin C throughout the cold season may help reduce symptoms or shorten how long the cold lasts.
  • Zinc lozenges—Taking zinc lozenges at the start of a cold may help shorten the length of the cold.
  • Echinacea —Echinacea might help people to recover faster from a cold. But, there is little evidence that it can prevent colds if taken in advance.
  • Honey —While honey has not been shown to affect the severity or length of a common cold, it may improve nighttime cough and sleep disruption in children. Do not give honey to infants younger than 12 months because of the risk of infant botulism.
Note: Some supplements and herbal treatments may not be pure. Many can also interact with prescription medications and over-the-counter products. Talk to your doctor before using any of these products.

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