Cushing's Syndrome

(Cushing's Disease; Hypercortisolism)

Definition

Cushing's syndrome is a hormone disorder. Cortisol, in normal doses, helps the body manage stress and infection. However, these high levels over a long period of time can cause several health problems.

Causes

Cushing's syndrome is caused by extended exposure to a hormone called cortisol. Prolonged or excess exposure to cortisol may be caused by:
  • Long-term use of corticosteroid hormones such as cortisone or prednisone
  • Excess production of cortisol by:
    • Tumor or abnormality of the adrenal gland.
    • Tumor or abnormality of the pituitary gland. In the case of a pituitary tumor, it is called Cushing's disease
    • Rarely, tumors of the lungs, thyroid, kidney, pancreas, or thymus gland.
Pituitary and Adrenal Glands
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Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of Cushing's syndrome include:

Symptoms

Cushing's syndrome may cause:
  • Weight gain of the upper body and trunk
  • Rounded face
  • Severe fatigue or muscle weakness
  • Easily bruised, thinner skin
  • Purple stretch marks
  • Excess hair growth or acne in women
  • Menstrual disorders, especially infrequent or absent periods
  • Reduced fertility and interest in sex
  • Personality changes or mood swings

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