Acute Cystitis

(Bladder Infection)

Definition

Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. It is usually caused by an infection. There are 2 types are of acute cystitis:
  • Uncomplicated—occurs in premenopausal, nonpregnant women, and in those with no other underlying conditions
  • Complicated—occurs with underlying conditions
The Urinary Tract
The Urinary Tract
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Causes

Acute cystitis is most often caused by bacteria. Bacteria enter the urethra and travel into the bladder. The urethra is a tube that allows urine to pass from the bladder to the outside. Bacteria may come from the lower intestines, the rectal area, or skin. Occasionally acute cystitis can be the result of medications or trauma.

Risk Factors

Acute cystitis is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your risk of uncomplicated cystitis include:
  • History of acute cystitis
  • Sexual activity
  • Barrier methods of birth control—use of diaphragm or condoms coated with spermicide
Factors that increase your risk of complicated cystitis include:
  • Having a urinary catheter
  • History of childhood urinary tract infection
  • Compromised immune system
  • Pregnancy
  • Diabetes, type 1 or type 2
  • Abnormalities of urinary system, such as kidney stones or kidney transplant
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Catheter use
  • Birth control devices—use of diaphragm or with spermicide

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