Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
(Alcohol in Pregnancy; Drinking Alcohol During Pregnancy; FAS)
DefinitionFetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) belongs to a group of disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It is caused when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy. The alcohol can cause birth and developmental defects in the baby. These defects make up FAS.
CausesAlcohol can cross from the mother's blood to the baby's blood. It is passed through the placenta. Even a small amount of alcohol can damage the fetus. It is not known how much alcohol it takes to cause defects. The risk increases with moderate to heavy drinking and with binging. But, even social drinking may pose a danger.Any type of alcohol, including beer and wine, can cause birth defects.
|Blood Traveling Through Mother's Placenta to Baby|
|Alcohol travels through this path and affects the baby's development, particularly the heart and brain.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Risk FactorsFactors that increase your baby's chance of getting FAS:
- Unplanned pregnancy or failing to recognize pregnancy and continuing to drink
- Lack of knowledge about the risks of drinking while pregnant
- Low socioeconomic status
SymptomsBirth and developmental defects depend on when the fetus was exposed to alcohol and how much alcohol was consumed.Babies with FAS may have the following physical symptoms:
- Low birth weight
- Small size and delayed growth
- Small head
- Small eyes
- Short, flat nose
- Flat cheeks
- Small jaws
- Unusually shaped ears
- Thin upper lip
- Shaking or tremors
- Sight and hearing problems
- Heart defects
- Small, abnormally formed brain
- Vision problems
- Ear infections
- Difficulty eating and sleeping
- Delayed speech
- Learning disabilities
- Intellectual disability
- Poor coordination
- Behavior problems
- Poor ability to control impulses
- Problems getting along with other children
- Problems at school
- Inability to hold a job
- Trouble living independently
- Mental health problems
- Alcohol or drug dependence
- Anxiety disorders
- Difficulty controlling anger
- Legal problems
DiagnosisThe doctor will ask you about your alcohol intake while pregnant. The child's growth will be assessed. A physical exam will be done. The diagnosis is based on:
- History of alcohol use
- Characteristic facial appearance
- Slow growth
- Nervous system problems
- Fetal alcohol effect
- Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder
TreatmentThere is no specific medical treatment for this condition. Early intervention is helpful, as well as a supportive, nurturing home. The doctor may recommend hearing and vision testing, as well as testing for any other medical problems related to FAS.
Social ServicesProfessional support helps a family cope with caring for a child with birth defects. Services include respite care and parent training. You can learn ways to handle behavior problems and stress management techniques.
Special EducationPrograms designed to meet your child's needs can help improve learning. For example, messages may need to be repeated. Tasks may need to be broken down into smaller steps.
Supportive EnvironmentA supportive environment is one that uses these guidelines:
- Provide consistent direction and structure.
- Keep to routines.
- Establish simple rules, limits, and consequences.
- Praise desired behaviors.
- Do not threaten. Violence or abuse increases the risk the child will learn to react in a similar fashion. Your child may need special training to learn ways to handle anger.
PreventionEfforts to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome are important.
- Avoid drinking alcohol if you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Also, take folic acid to prevent other birth defects.
- Avoid heavy drinking when not using birth control. Damage can occur before you even know you are pregnant.
- Seek help from a doctor if you cannot stop drinking.
- Use birth control until you are able to quit drinking.
National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Alcoholics Anonymous of Canada
Women's Health Matters
Chaudhuri JD. Alcohol and the developing fetus—a review. Med Sci Monit . 2000;6:1031-1041.
Drinking and your pregnancy. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/DrinkingPregnancy%5FHTML/pregnancy.htm. Published 2006. Accessed July 26, 2013.
Fetal alcohol syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated December 12, 2012. Accessed July 26, 2013.
Nayak RB, Murthy P. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45(12):977-983.
Prenatal exposure to alcohol [review]. Alcohol Res Health . 2000;24:32-41.
Thackray H, Tifft C. Fetal alcohol syndrome. Pediatr Rev . 2001;22:47-55.
Treatment and support. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome website. Available at: http://www.nofas.org/treatments-support/.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 07/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013