(FM; Fibromyalgia Syndrome; FMS)
DefinitionFibromyalgia is a complex, chronic, and disabling disorder. It causes widespread pain. It also causes poor sleep and fatigue.
|Fibromyalgia Trigger Points|
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CausesThe exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown.The following are some of the conditions that are commonly associated with fibromyalgia:
- Depression and anxiety
- Chronic headache, such as tension headaches
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Female urethral syndrome (irritable bladder)
Risk FactorsFibromyalgia is more common in women, and in people aged 20-60 years old. Physical or mental stress may also increase your chance of getting fibromyalgia.
SymptomsSymptoms and severity of fibromyalgia are different for everyone.Fibromyalgia may cause:
- Generlized pain and tenderness
- Poor sleep
- Reduced physical endurance
- Problems with concentration, thought, or memory
- Weather changes, especially cold, damp weather
- Stress or anxiety
- Medical illness
DiagnosisThe doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.The doctor will look for the following signs:
- Widespread pain lasting three months or longer
- Tenderness (on physical exam) in specific areas of the body
TreatmentThe goal of treatment is to relieve or control the symptoms. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:
- Physical therapy
- Heated pool treatments
- Alternative treatments, such as massage , acupuncture , relaxation training , trigger point therapy, biofeedback, and yoga
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Lifestyle ChangesYour doctor may also recommend that you make lifestyle changes, such as:
- Eating a healthy diet
- Learning to cope with physical and mental stress
- Maintaining a regular sleep schedule
- Participating in a regular exercise program that includes aerobic activity, strength training, and flexibility exercises. Gentle exercises that may not strain painful areas include walking, biking, and swimming. Talk to your doctor to make sure it is safe for you to start exercising.
MedicationsYour doctor may recommend the following to help manage symptoms:
- Muscle relaxants
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
PreventionThere are no current guidelines to prevent fibromyalgia.
American College of Rheumatology
The American Fibromyalgia Syndrome Association
The Arthritis Society
Fibromyalgia Information and Local Support
About fibromyalgia. National Fibromyalgia Association website. Available at: http://fmaware.org/site/PageServerded3.html?pagename=fibromyalgia. Accessed August 9, 2013.
Buckhardt CS, Goldenberg D, Crofford L, et al. Guideline for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome pain in adults and children. Glenview (IL): American Pain Society (APS); 2005. as summarized in National Guideline Clearinghouse 2005;19:7298.
Carville SF, Arendt-Nielsen S, Bliddal H, et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:536-541.
Fibromyalgia. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases%5FAnd%5FConditions/Fibromyalgia.. Accessed August 9, 2013.
Fibromyalgia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated July 15, 2013. Accessed August 9, 2013.
Fibromyalgia. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Fibromyalgia/default.asp. Updated August 2012. Accessed August 9, 2013.
Wierville L. Fibromyalgia: diagnosing and managing a complex syndrome. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2012;24(4):184-92.
2/17/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Russell IJ, Perkins AT, Michalek JE; Oxybate SXB-26 Fibromyalgia Syndrome Study Group. Sodium oxybate relieves pain and improves function in fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:299-309.
4/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Munguía-Izquierdo D, Legaz-Arrese A. Assessment of the effects of aquatic therapy on global symptomatology in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89:2250-2257.
4/22/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Sañudo B, Galiano D, Carrasco L, Blagojevic M, de Hoyo M, Saxton J.Aerobic exercise versus combined exercise therapy in women with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(12):1838-1843.
4/22/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Carson JW, Carson KM, Jones KD, Bennett RM, Wright CL, Mist SD.A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Yoga of Awareness program in the management of fibromyalgia. Pain. 2010;151(2):530-539.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD; Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013