Gastritis

Definition

Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. Gastritis can be defined as:
  • Acute—comes on suddenly and lasts for a short time
  • Chronic—either long lasting or recurrent
Gastritis can be erosive. Erosive gastritis can wear away the lining of the stomach. It may also cause ulcers and bleeding.

Causes

Causes of acute gastritis include:Causes of chronic gastritis include:
  • Bacterial infection, such as Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori )
  • Viral infection
  • Fungal infection
  • NSAID use
  • Alcohol use disorder
  • Reflux of bile into the stomach
  • Autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease , or sarcoidosis
  • Pernicious anemia , a cause of autoimmune gastritis
  • Radiation treatment
  • Swallowing caustic substances

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of acute gastritis include:
  • NSAID use
  • Excess alcohol use
  • Head injury
  • Surgery
  • Respiratory failure
  • Kidney failure
  • Liver failure
Factors that increase your chance of getting chronic gastritis include:
  • H. pylori infection
  • NSAID use
  • Excess alcohol use

Symptoms

Gastritis may cause:
  • Abdominal burning and pain
  • Indigestion
  • Acid reflux, when stomach acid comes up the esophagus
  • Burping
  • Bloating
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feeling full
  • Nausea and vomiting
If the gastritis is causing bleeding, you may notice:
  • Bloody or black vomit
  • Bloody or dark black, tarry stools

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