Hairy Cell Leukemia
(HCL; Leukemic Reticuloendotheliosis)
DefinitionHairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare form of cancer. It involves white blood cells called B lymphocytes. White blood cells protect the body from infection. HCL gets its name from the tiny hair-like projections that stick out of the surface of these cancer cells. Illness results from the build up of these cancer cells in the bone marrow and spleen.
|White Blood Cells|
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CausesCancer occurs when cells in the body become abnormal. They divide without control or order. Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells and their parent cells. Leukemia cells do not function normally. In this case, they can not fight infections. This means that the person is more likely to become infected with viruses or bacteria. The cancerous cells also overgrow the bone marrow. This forces other normal cells, like platelets out. Platelets are needed to help the blood clot. As a result, people with leukemia may bleed more easily.The exact cause of HCL is unknown, but it may be linked to a genetic mutation.
Risk FactorsHCL occurs more often in men. It also occurs more often in people over the age of 50.
SymptomsHCL usually develops slowly over time. Early on, there may not be any symptoms.In those that have them, symptoms may include:
- Abdominal swelling
- Easy bruising
- Night sweats
- Swollen lymph nodes
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Bone marrow biopsy
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