DefinitionHearing loss is a decreased ability to hear.
|The Anatomy of the Ear|
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CausesThere are two main categories of hearing loss:
- Conductive hearing loss is caused by something interfering with the sound passing to the inner ear
- Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to:
- The cochlea—the major organ in the ear responsible for hearing
- The 8th cranial nerve—the major nerve pathway and/or area of the brain responsible for hearing
- Impacted ear wax
- Fluid in the middle ear
- Ear infections
- Perforation of ear drum
- Changes the bone structure of the ear, a condition called otosclerosis
- Congenital anomaly causing complete closure of the ear canal
- Otosclerosis affecting the inner ear
- Vascular disease that affects blood flow to the ear
- Previous brain, ear surgery, or viral infection causing damage to the inner ear
Risk FactorsHearing loss is more common in older adults. Factors that may increase your risk of hearing loss include:
- Family history
- Exposure to excess noise
- Exposure to medications, such as antibiotics, diuretics, or heart medications:
- Having certain health conditions, such as
- Not receiving all recommended immunizations
SymptomsHearing loss may cause a decreased ability to hear:
- Higher pitched sounds
- Lower pitched sounds
- All sounds
- Speech when there is background noise
- The sensation of spinning when you are not — vertigo
- Ringing sounds in the ears
- Problems with balance
- In children, hearing loss may cause difficulty learning to speak.
When Should I Call My Doctor?Call your doctor if you notice hearing loss. You should especially call if you also have:
- Ear pain
- Ringing or other sounds in your ear
- Problems with speech or balance
- Sensitivity to sound
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may have ear tests done. These may include:
- Weber test or Rinne test—To help distinguish conductive from sensorineural hearing loss
- Audiometric tests —A direct test of hearing
- Tympanometry—This test measures the pressure in the middle ear and examines the middle ear's response to pressure waves
- Electrocochleography—This tests the function of the cochlea and the auditory nerve.
TreatmentWhen hearing loss is caused by other medical conditions, it may be possible to improve hearing by treating those conditions. Other treatment includes:
Non-surgical TreatmentNon-surgical treatment options are not invasive and may help improve your hearing. Options include:
- Earwax removal
- Changing or stopping medications that affect your hearing
- Modifying any dietary deficiencies
- Hearing aids
- Assisted listening devices that enhance the abilities of your hearing aid or cochlear implant to make sounds clearer and easier to hear
SurgerySurgery may be done in some cases of conductive hearing loss to correct the middle ear problem, such as in otosclerosis , ossicular damage or fixation, and ear infections. A cochlear implant directly stimulates part of the brain and uses a tiny computer microprocessor to sort out incoming sound.
Home CareIf you have hearing loss, some changes may help you maximize your ability to hear. Follow these guidelines when talking to other people:
- Face the person that you are talking to. This will allow you to see their facial expressions and watch their lips move.
- Ask other people to speak loudly and more clearly.
- Turn off background noise, such as the TV or radio.
- In public places, choose a place to sit that is away from noise.
- Work with a special trainer to learn how to lip read. Lip reading involves paying close attention to how a person’s mouth and body are moving when they talk.
PreventionTo help prevent hearing loss, take these steps:
- If you smoke, talk with your doctor about the best ways to quit .
- Adequately treat ear infections.
- Get all appropriate immunizations.
- Treat all medical conditions as directed by your doctor.
- Avoid exposure to excess noise.
- Use adequate ear protection when using noisy equipment.
American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
American Tinnitus Association
The Canadian Hearing Society
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Hansen MC. Otosclerosis and sensorineural hearing loss. A clinical study. Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 1983;109(9).
Hearing loss prevention. Better Hearing Institute website. Available at: http://www.betterhearing.org/hearing%5Floss%5Fprevention/index.cfm. Accessed September 29, 2014.
Lee SH, Chang Y, Lee JE, Cho JH. The values of diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI in evaluating profound sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear Implants International. 2004;149-152.
Living with hearing loss. Hearing Loss Association of America website. Available at: http://www.hearingloss.org/content/living-hearing-loss. Accessed September 29, 2014.
2/1/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed : Durga J, Verhoef P, Anteunis L, Schouten E, Kok F. Effects of folic acid supplementation on hearing in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Int Med. 2007;146(1):1-9.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/29/2014