(Excess Male-Pattern Hair Growth)
DefinitionHirsutism is excess male-pattern hair growth in women. The coarse, dark hair can occur in areas such as the face, chest, and back.
CausesTrue hirsutism is often due to an increased level of a male sex hormone called androgen. The main circulating androgen is called testosterone. This hormone is normally found in both men and women. There are certain medical conditions or medications that may cause an elevation in the levels of this hormone in women. The most common cause of hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome . Other less common include:
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- Some forms of Cushing syndrome
- Adrenal tumors
- Ovarian tumors
- Pituitary tumors
- Certain medications, including:
- Anabolic steroids
- Progestin-containing medications (such as oral contraceptives)
Risk FactorsThere are no known risk factors for hirsutism.
SymptomsSymptoms and signs of some disorders associated with hirsutism may include:
- Excess hair growth on the face, arms, back, armpits, groin, or chest
- Abnormal or absent menstrual periods
- Male-pattern baldness
- Deepened voice
- Increased size of clitoris
- High blood pressure
- Increased muscle mass
- Enlarged ovaries
- Enlarged adrenal glands
- Abnormal cholesterol levels and glucose intolerance
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DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The diagnosis is made by the distribution and degree of hair growth.Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.Images may be taken of your brain or abdomen. This can be done with:
TreatmentTreatment is directed at hair removal, reducing hair growth, and the underlying cause of the hirsutism and may include:
Hair RemovalMethods of removing hair include:
- Chemical treatment (depilatories)
- Laser treatment
- Intense pulsed light (IPL)—uses high-intensity pulses of light to remove hair; unlike laser treatment, IPL uses a range of wavelengths.
MedicationsMedications that may help reduce hair growth include:
- Oral contraceptives
Treatment of Other ConditionsIf you are diagnosed with a condition that may be causing hirsutism, proper treatment may resolve the hirsutism. Weight loss may also play a role in reducing underlying hormone imbalances.
PreventionHirsutism may be prevented by treating the underlying cause.
American Osteopathic College of Dermatology
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Canadian Dermatology Association
Azziz R. The evaluation and management of hirsutism. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:99-108.
Hirsutism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 13, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2014.
Hirsutism. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1532-1533.
Intense pulsed light therapy. DermNet NZ website. Available at: http://dermnetnz.org/procedures/ipl.html. Updated December 29, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2014.
Lustberg ME. American Osteopathic College of Dermatology website. Available at: http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic%5Fdiseases/hirsutism.html. Accessed September 12, 2012.
11/1/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Hamzavi I, Tan E, Shapiro J, Lui H. A randomized bilateral vehicle-controlled study of eflornithine cream combined with laser treatment versus laser treatment alone for facial hirsutism in women.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:54-59.
9/2/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Haak CS, Nymann P, Pedersen AT, et al. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser versus intense pulsed light.Br J Dermatol. 2010 Aug 20. [Epub ahead of print]
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014
- Update Date: 12/20/2014