( Triglycerides, High; Hypertriglyceridemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia)
DefinitionTriglycerides are the chemical form in which most fat exists in food and in the body When triglyceride levels are high, it can be associated with coronary artery disease and stroke.
CausesCauses may include:
- Excess triglyceride production in the body, usually related to genetics
- Excess ingestion of triglycerides from food sources
- Kidney problems
- Liver disease
Risk FactorsIt is more common for older adults, especially men, to have high triglycerides. Facters that may increase your risk of high triglycerides include:
- A family history of hyperlipidemia
- A diet high in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol
- Postmenopause in women
- Lack of exercise
- Excess alcohol intake
- Certain conditions, including:
- Certain medications, such as birth control pills and isotretinoin, which is used to treat acne
SymptomsHigh triglyceride levels usually do not cause symptoms. Very high levels of triglycerides can cause:
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea and vomiting—associated with acute pancreatitis
|Blood Vessel with Atherosclerosis|
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DiagnosisThis condition is diagnosed with blood tests. These tests measure the levels of triglycerides in the blood. The National Cholesterol Education Program advises that you have your lipids checked at least once every 5 years, starting at age 20. Also, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends lipid screening for children at risk, such as those with a family history of hyperlipidemia or significant obesity starting between 2 to 8 years old. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute recommends routine screening at 9 to 11 years old and again at 17 to 12 years old.Triglycerides may be part of a fasting lipid profile blood test including:
- Total cholesterol
- LDL (bad cholesterol)
- HDL (good cholesterol)
- Family history of hyperlipidemia
- Risk factor or disease that may cause hyperlipidemia
- Complication that may result from hyperlipidemia
TreatmentTreatment is not only aimed at correcting triglyceride levels, but also at lowering the overall risk for heart disease and stroke.
Diet ChangesDietary changes can help to lower triglyceride levels. These may include:
- Eating a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
- Avoiding alcohol or drinking alcohol in moderation
- Eating more high-fiber foods
Lifestyle ChangesLifestyle changes that can help lower triglyceride levels include:
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Talking to a doctor about ways to quit smoking
- Exercising regularly
- Treating and controlling other medical conditions
MedicationsThere are a number of drugs available, such as statins , to treat this condition and help lower the risk for heart disease. Statins have been shown to reduce death, heart attacks , and stroke in patients with high triglycerides. Talk to your doctor about whether these medications are right for you. These medications are best used as additions to diet and exercise and should not replace healthy lifestyle changes.
PreventionTo help reduce your chance of getting hyperlipidemia, take the following steps:
- Have cholesterol tests starting at age 20—or younger if you have risk factors.
- Eat a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
- Drink alcohol in moderation—two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Exercise regularly. Talk with your doctor first.
- If you have diabetes , control your blood sugar.
- Talk to your doctor about medications you are taking. Some may have side effects that cause high triglyceride levels .
American Heart Association
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Hypertriglyceridemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 31, 2014. Accessed March 12, 2015.
Side effects of anti-HIV medications. National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/SideEffectAnitHIVMeds%5Fcbrochure%5Fen.pdf. Published October 2005. Accessed March 12, 2015.
What your cholesterol levels mean. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/What-Your-Cholesterol-Levels-Mean%5FUCM%5F305562%5FArticle.jsp. Updated January 14, 2015. Accessed March 12, 2015.
7/22/2008 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Daniels SR, Greer FR; Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics. 2008;122:198-208.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 03/2015
- Update Date: 05/02/2014
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