Kidney Failure

(Renal Failure; Renal Insufficiency)

Definition

The kidneys remove waste in the form of urine from the body. They also balance the water and electrolyte content in the blood by filtering salt and water. When one or both of the kidneys are not able to perform these functions, kidney failure may result.Kidney failure is divided into two categories:
Anatomy of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
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Causes

Kidney disease occurs when nephrons lose their ability to function normally. Nephrons are cells in the kidney that filter the blood. Damage to the nephrons may occur suddenly after an injury or poisoning. Many kidney diseases take years or even decades to cause damage that is noticeable.The two most commons causes of kidney disease are:
  • Diabetes—high blood sugar can damage nephrons
  • High blood pressure—severe high blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the kidneys
Others causes include:

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