Kidney Stones—Adult

(Renal Colic; Renal Lithiasis; Nephrolithiasis; Renal Calculi)


Kidney stones are pieces of a stone or crystal-like material. These stones form inside the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. The kidneys remove waste from the body. They also balance the water and electrolyte content in the blood by filtering salt and water.There are several types of kidney stones:
  • Calcium oxalate
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Struvite
  • Uric acid
  • Cystine
Kidney Stone
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


The cause of your kidney stone may be depend on the type of stone that you have. Calcium stones are the most common type.
  • Calcium oxalate or phosphorus stones—These kidney stones form when the concentration of calcium or other minerals in the urine becomes too high or when minerals that prevent stone formation are too low.
  • Struvite stones—These stones develop as a result of a urinary tract infection. The stones are composed of ammonium, magnesium, and phosphate salts.
  • Uric acid stones—These stones form when urine is acidic. This may also occur in people with gout or those who are on chemotherapy.
  • Cystine stones—These stones form due to a rare genetic disorder that causes the kidneys to build up excess amounts of cystine. Cystine is one of the amino acids that make up proteins.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of kidney stones include:
  • White adult male under 50 years old
  • Personal history of kidney stones
  • Family history of kidney stones
Other factors that increase your risk of kidney stones include:Calcium oxalate or phosphorus stones:
  • Excess dietary sodium and oxalate. Oxalate can be found in green, leafy vegetables, chocolate, nuts, or tea.
  • Low fluid intake, especially during warmer weather, which can lead to dehydration.
  • Overactive parathyroid gland.
  • Chronic bowel disorders such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • Some diuretics.
  • Calcium-based antacids.
Struvite stones:
  • History of urinary infection
  • More common in women
Uric acid stones:
  • Excess dietary red meat or poultry
  • Gout
A rare genetic disorder increases the risk of cystine stones.

leave comments
Did you like this? Share with your family and friends.
Related Topics:
Current Research From Top Journals

Music May Improve Sleep Quality in Adults with Insomnia
October 2015

Insomnia can make your days miserable and a cure can be hard to find. There are some medications but there is some worry with side effects and the potential for addiction. Music is side effect free and according to this study may help you find sleep.

dot separator
previous editions

CPAP May Help Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
September 2015

Water Before Meals May Promote Weight Loss
August 2015

Fecal Transplants Induce Ulcerative Colitis Remission
July 2015

dashed separator


Our Free Newsletter
click here to see all of our uplifting newsletters »