Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

(PID; Salpingitis)


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious infection of the female reproductive organs. This includes the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. PID can cause scar tissue to form in the pelvis and fallopian tubes. This damage may result in infertility , a future tubal pregnancy , or chronic pelvic pain.
Female Reproductive Organs
Fallopian Tube, Ovary, and Uterus
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PID is caused by specific bacteria. The most common bacteria that initiate PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia .

Risk Factors

PID is more common in women aged 15-24 years. Other factors that may increase your chance of PID:
  • Current or previous sexually-transmitted disease (STD)
  • Multiple sex partners
  • Sexual intercourse with a partner who has an STD
  • Intercourse without the protection of a condom
  • Having an intrauterine device (IUD) recently insterted for birth control


Women with PID do not always have symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they may include:
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odor
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Painful intercourse
  • Painful urination
  • Vaginal bleeding


Because symptoms are often subtle or nonexistent, PID can be difficult to diagnose. There are no specific tests for PID.If PID is suspected, the doctor will ask about your symptoms, as well as your sexual history, partners, and birth control methods. A physical and pelvic exam will be done. The pelvic exam is key to making the diagnosis. Samples from the vagina or cervix may be taken to help diagnose the problem.Tests may include:
  • Cultures of the cervix to test for STDs
  • Blood tests to check pregnancy status, and signs of infection
  • Laparoscopy—insertion of a thin, lighted telescopic tube through a small incision in the abdomen to look at the reproductive organs
Imaging tests may be done with ultrasound or MRI scan .

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