Pneumonia—Adult

(Community-Acquired Pneumonia; CAP; Bronchopneumonia)

Definition

Pneumonia is an infection that affects the small airways and air sacs in the lungs.
Development of Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs
pneumonia lung fluid
Normal gas exchange is interrupted by fluid build-up.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Pneumonia is sometimes described by where and how you were infected. Types of pneumonia include:
  • Community-acquired—from the community, such as a school, gym, or at work
  • Nosocomial—in a hospital or healthcare setting
  • Aspiration—happens when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs, such as food, liquid, saliva, or vomit

Causes

Pneumonia may be caused by:
  • Infection from specific types of:
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
  • Aspiration
  • Other specific germs
  • Chemical exposure and irritation
Aspiration
lung aspiration food
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors

Pneumonia is more common in older adults. Other factors that may increase your chance of pneumonia include:

Symptoms

Pneumonia may cause:
  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • Increased mucus production
  • Fever and chills
  • Trouble breathing
  • Weakness

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may suspect pneumonia based on your symptoms, and breath and lung sounds. Tests can confirm diagnosis and determine the specific germ causing the pneumonia.Your bodily fluids may be tested with:
  • Blood tests and/or cultures
  • Sputum culture
  • Urine tests
Pulse oximetry measures blood oxygen levels. Images may be taken of your lungs. This can be done with:

Treatment

Treatment of pneumonia depends on:
  • What caused the pneumonia
  • Severity of symptoms
  • Other factors, like your overall health
People with severe pneumonia may need to be hospitalized.

Medications

Your doctor may advise:
  • Antibiotics—for pneumonia caused by bacteria
  • Antifungal medications—for pneumonia caused by fungi
  • Antiviral medications—for pneumonia caused viruses, such as influenza
  • Over-the-counter medications to reduce fever and discomfort
  • Vitamin C may be advised if you don't get enough in your diet
  • Oxygen therapy may be needed in more severe cases

Prevention

Certain vaccines may prevent pneumonia:
  • Flu vaccine—pneumonia may be a complication of the flu for people at high risk of infection, especially aged 50 years and older
  • Pneumococcal vaccine:
    • All adults who are aged 65 years or older
    • Adults of any age who are at high risk of infection or have a suppressed immune system
Other preventive measures include:
  • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection and increases recovery time.
  • Avoid close contact with people who have the cold or flu.
  • Wash your hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick..
  • Protect yourself on jobs that include chemicals or other lung irritants.
  • Maintain good control of any chronic disease, such as asthma and diabetes.

Advertisement

RESOURCES

American Lung Association
http://www.lung.org

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
http://www.familydoctor.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

The College of Family Physicians of Canada
http://www.cfpc.ca

The Lung Association
http://www.lung.ca

References

2015 Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/easy-to-read/index.html. Updated January 26, 2105. Accessed February 18, 2015.

Blasi F, Aliberti S, et al. 100 years of respiratory medicine: Pneumonia. Respir Med. 2007;101(5):875-881.

Braunwald E, Harrison TR, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill; 2008.

Carpenter CC, Andreoli TE, et al. Cecil Essentials of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science; 2003.

Community-acquired pneumonia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 5, 2014. Accessed February 18, 2014.

De Roux A, Marcos MA, et al. Viral community-acquired pneumonia in non-immunocompromised adults. Chest. 2004;125(4):1343-1351.

Explore pneumonia. National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu. Updated March 1, 2011. Accessed February 18, 2015.

Niederman MS. Recent advances in community-acquired pneumonia inpatient and outpatient. Chest. 2007;4:1205-1215.

Niederman MS. Review of treatment guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Med. 2004;117:Suppl 3A:51S-57S.

10/29/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hemila H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD005532.

10/21/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hemilä H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;8:CD005532.

3/10/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Su VY, Liu CJ, et al. Sleep apnea and risk of pneumonia: A nationwide population-based study. CMAJ. 2014;186(6):415-421.

6/17/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reissig A, Copetti R, et al. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of community-acquired pneumonia: A prospective, multicenter diagnostic accuracy study. Chest. 2012;142(4):965-972.

2/3/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rantala A, Jaakkola JJ, et al. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68582.

Revision Information

Did you like this? Share with your family and friends.
Current Research From Top Journals


Exercise During Pregnancy May Decrease the Risk of Cesarean Birth
December 2014

Exercise during pregnancy has been associated with many benefits for mom and baby. This review supports the trend and finds that even one day of purposeful activity per week may reduce the need for cesarean birth.

dot separator
previous editions

Maternal Caffeine Intake May Be Associated with Low Birth Weight
November 2014

Prevent Eczema in Kids with a Daily Dose of Moisturizer
November 2014

Broccoli Sprout Compound Associated with Reduction in Autism Symptoms
October 2014

dashed separator

Advertisement

Our Free Newsletter
click here to see all of our uplifting newsletters »

 

Advertisement

Advertisement

DiggDeliciousNewsvineRedditStumbleTechnoratiFacebook