DefinitionReye syndrome is a serious but rare condition. It causes a buildup of fat and swelling in most organs. Reye is most harmful to the liver and brain.It tends to occur during recovery from a viral infection.
CausesThe cause of Reye syndrome is unknown.
Risk FactorsReye syndrome occurs most often in children aged 2-16 years, but it can occur in anyone. Factors that may increase the risk of Reye syndrome include:
- Use of aspirin or other salicylates, especially in children during viral illness like the flu or chickenpox
- Recent viral illness, including:
- Fatty acid oxidation disorder
- Exposure to certain toxins
SymptomsSymptoms usually occur after a viral illness and may include:
- Frequent or persistent vomiting
- Drowsiness and fatigue
- Personality changes, such as irritability and aggression
- Disordered speech
- Rapid or deep breathing
- Loss of consciousness
- Inability to breathe without help
DiagnosisThe doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
|Spinal Tap–Lumbar Puncture Method|
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TreatmentEarly diagnosis and treatment are important for a successful recovery.Treatment is focused on protecting the brain and other organs from damage. Options include:
MedicationMedications may help to:
- Decrease inflammation
- Lower pressure of fluid in the brain
- Prevent seizures
- Reduce vomiting
- Reduce blood ammonia levels—may also require dialysis
MonitoringThe brain, heart, and lungs will be carefully monitored. This will help the doctor begin supportive treatments as soon as possible.
Advanced CareAs the condition progresses, more care may be needed. Some advanced care options include:
- Ventilator—to take over breathing
- Drainage procedure or decompression craniotomy—to reduce pressure in the brain
PreventionThe exact cause of Reye syndrome is not known, but the following may decrease the risk of Reyes syndrome:
- Do not give aspirin to children and teens with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving aspirin to a child or teen.
- Avoid giving children and teens medications that contain salicylates. Examples include Alka-Seltzer, Anacin, Bufferin, and Pepto-Bismol.
American Academy of Pediatrics
National Reye's Syndrome Foundation
About Kids Health
Alberta Human Services
Reye Syndrome. American Liver Foundation website. Available at: http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/reye. Updated October 4, 2011. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Reyes Syndrome. National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/reyes%5Fsyndrome/reyes%5Fsyndrome.htm. Accessed February 28, 2013. Updated September 25, 2009. Accessed August 5, 2013.
What is Reyes Syndrome? National Reyes Syndrome website. Available at: http://reyessyndrome.org/what.html. Accessed August 5, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013