Rheumatic Fever

Definition

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory condition. It involves the connective tissue in the body. The most severe complication is rheumatic heart disease. This condition may permanently damage the heart valves. Valves control the flow of blood to and from the heart.
Diseased Heart Valve
Diseased Aortic Valve
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Causes

Rheumatic fever is caused by group A Streptococcus pharyngitis, also known as strep throat. In this case, the body uses antibodies to fight the infection, but the antibodies also attack the heart.

Risk Factors

Rheumatic fever is more common in children and adolescents aged 5-15 years. Other factors that may increase your chance of rheumatic fever include:
  • Having strep throat
  • Prior case of rheumatic fever

Symptoms

Symptoms usually appear 2 to 4 weeks after a strep infection. They may include:
  • Pain and swelling in large joints
  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Muscle aches
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hacking cough
  • Circular rash
  • Lumps under the skin
  • Abnormal, sudden movements of arms and legs

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. This will include a careful exam of your heart. Other tests may include:
  • Samples may be taken of your bodily fluids and tissues. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Throat culture
  • You may need to have pictures taken of your heart. This can be done with:
  • You may need to have your heart activity measured. This can be done with an electrocardiogram (EKG) .

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