DefinitionSnoring is a sound made during sleep. It is the sound of the throat vibrating as air flows through it.
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CausesAir should be able to move easily through your mouth, nose, and throat. Sometimes, during sleep, air cannot move through these areas easily. This turbulent airflow makes the roof of the mouth vibrate. This is what causes the snoring sound. Smaller airways can lead to louder snoring. Airflow may be obstructed by:
- Weak muscles in the tongue and throat
- Enlarged tonsils, adenoids, or other obstructions such as a tumors or cysts
- Excessive tissue around the throat due to obesity
- Structural factors:
- A long, soft palate
- A long uvula
- Deformities of the nose or nasal septum
- Small chin, overbite, or high palate
- Congested nasal passages from a cold, flu, sinus infection, or allergies
Risk FactorsBeing over 50 years old and male increase the risk of snoring. Other factors include:
- Being overweight
- Family history
- Use of drugs (central nervous system depressants) or alcohol that act as respiratory depressants
- Lying on back while sleeping
- Nasal obstruction (due to a cold, sinus infection, allergy, enlarged adenoids, or injury that has displaced the nasal cartilage or bones)
SymptomsThe main symptom of snoring is noisy breathing during sleep.Snoring may be associated with a sleep condition called sleep apnea. Snoring with sleep apnea may cause these symptoms:
- While sleeping:
- Long pauses in breathing
- Frequent awakening
- While awake:
- Sleepiness and fatigue during the day
- Slowness in mental functioning
When Should I Call My Doctor?Call your doctor if you snore and you have other symptoms of sleep apnea. Talk to your doctor if you have regular snoring that is bothering you or your partner.If your child is snoring regularly, talk to their doctor.
DiagnosisIf your snoring is severe, the doctor will want to make sure you do not have obstructive sleep apnea. Diagnosis may involve:
- Physical exam of the throat, neck, mouth, and nose
- A sleep study in a laboratory—to help determine how much the snoring is disrupting your sleep
TreatmentIn cases of snoring without sleep apnea, lifestyle changes may alleviate symptoms. More severe cases may require surgery or devices.
Lifestyle ChangesChanges that may help stop snoring include:
- If you are overweight, lose weight.
- Exercise to improve muscle tone.
- Avoid drinking alcohol or taking sedatives.
- Establish regular sleeping patterns.
- Sleep on your side rather than on your back.
- Treat causes of nasal congestion, such as allergies or colds.
- Raise the head of the bed up about four inches. Use extra pillows or put something under the mattress.
SurgerySurgery may be done to remove excess tissue in the nose or throat. During surgery, a laser or scalpel will remove the tissue that is blocking the airway. Treatment by laser surgery requires a series of surgeries. These surgeries are usually reserved for severe and disruptive cases of snoring.Another procedure is to try to stiffen the roof of the mouth.
DevicesDevices that can open airways during sleep include:
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)—airway is propped open by a continuous flow of air. The air passes through a mask-like device that you wear during sleep. It is more commonly used for people with obstructive sleep apnea.
- Mouthpieces—to help position the soft palate and tongue for better breathing
PreventionTo reduce the chances of snoring, take these steps:
- Maintain a healthy body weight.
- Treat cold and allergy symptoms.
- Avoid drinking alcohol or taking sedatives for several hours before bedtime.
- Sleep on your side.
American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
National Center on Sleep Disorders Research
Better Sleep Council Canada
Canadian Lung Association
Snoring. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/HealthInformation/snoring.cfm. Accessed May 15, 2013.
Snoring. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/kid/health%5Fproblems/teeth/snoring.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed May 15, 2013.
McDonald JP. A review of surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Surgeon. 2003;1:259-264. Review.
Obstructive sleep apnea. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated April 16, 2013. Accessed May 15, 2013.
Sher AE. Upper airway surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:195-212. Review.
Yaggi HK, Concato J, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for stroke and death N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2034-2041.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 05/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013
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