DefinitionSpinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal. The spinal canal is located in the backbone. It is a small space that holds the nerve roots and spinal cord. If this space becomes smaller, it can squeeze the nerves and the spinal cord. This causes pain and other symptoms. Stenosis can occur anywhere along the spinal cord. It is most common in the low back (lumbar) region.
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CausesSome people are born with narrowed canals. Most often stenosis is a result of aging. Conditions that can cause spinal stenosis include:
- Osteoarthritis and osteophytes (bony spurs) associated with aging
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Spinal tumors
- Paget's disease of the bone
- Previous surgery
Risk FactorsSpinal stenosis is more common in people aged 50 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of spinal stenosis include:
- Being born with a narrow spinal canal
- Previous injury or surgery of the spine
SymptomsSpinal stenosis may cause:
- Numbness, weakness, cramping, or pain in the legs and thighs
- Radiating pain down the leg
- Abnormal bowel and/or bladder function
- Decreased sensation in the feet causing difficulty placing the feet when walking
- Loss of sexual function
- Partial or complete paralysis of legs
DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.Imaging tests that evaluate your spine and surrounding structures may include:
MedicationMedications that relieve pain and inflammation include:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Corticosteroid injections
Physical TherapySpecial exercises can help stabilize the spinal cord. Exercise can increase muscle endurance and mobility of the spine. This can relieve some pain. Sometimes exercises are ineffective against spinal stenosis.
Support DevicesWearing a corset or lumbar brace can help stabilize the spine. This may relieve pain.
SurgerySurgery is reserved for severe cases.
- Decompression laminectomy—This is the removal of bony spurs or increased bone mass in the spinal canal. This can free up space for the nerves and the spinal cord.
- Spinal fusion—This is when two vertebrae (back bones) are fused together. This will provide stronger support for the spine. This is almost always done after decompression laminectomy.
PreventionThere are no guidelines for preventing spinal stenosis.
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
The Arthritis Society
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Berkow R. The Merck Manual of Medical Information. Home Edition. New York, NY: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999.
Lumbar spinal stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 20, 2014. Accessed September 29, 2014.
Snyder DL, Doggett D, et al. Treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(3):517-520.
Spinal stenosis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Spinal%5FStenosis/default.asp. Updated January 2013. Accessed September 29, 2014.
12/17/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: de Schepper El, Overdevest GM, et al. Diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis: an updated systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Apr 15;38(8):E469-81.
- Reviewer: Teresa Briedwell, DPT, OCS
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 12/17/2013
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