Tourette Syndrome

(TS)

Definition

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system. It is a type of tic disorder, with motor and vocal tics. These tics are rapid, involuntary movements or sounds that occur repeatedly.Many people with TS also have one or more of the following problems:

Causes

The exact cause of TS is unknown. However brain chemicals, called dopamine and serotonin, are most likely involved.There may be a genetic link to TS, although some have no known family history.
Genetic Material
Chromosome DNA
TS is inherited through genes, which make up DNA.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors

Males are 3-4 times more likely to be affected. Other factors that may increase your chance of TS include:
  • Family history of TS
  • Having other tic disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Maternal stress during pregnancy
  • Daily use of coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol by the mother before pregnancy

Symptoms

Tics are the main symptoms of TS. To be TS, the tics must be involuntary and:
  • Both motor and vocal tics
  • Be present for more than 1 year
  • Start before age 18
  • Not absent at any time for more than 3 months
  • Not be due to a physiological cause like substances or a medical condition
Tics will usually happen daily, range from mild-to-severe and change in type over time. They can occur suddenly and vary in the amount of time that they last. Tics may temporarily decrease with concentration or distraction. During times of stress and tension, they may occur more often.Tics are divided into motor and vocal. The following are some common examples:
  • Motor tics
    • Simple—eye blinking, head jerking, arm or shoulder shrugging
    • Complex—jumping, smelling, touching things or other people, twirling around
  • Vocal tics
    • Simple—throat clearing, coughing, sniffing, grunting, yelping, barking
    • Complex—saying words or phrases that do not make sense in a given situation, saying obscene or socially unacceptable words—called coprolalia
While tics may occur throughout life, but symptoms may improve during later teen years.

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