Turf Toe

(Metatarsalphalangeal Joint Sprain; Sprain Big Toe)

Definition

Turf toe is a sprain of the base of the big toe where the big toe meets the foot. It is usually a hyperextension sprain of the first joint of the toe. A sprain is stretching or tearing of the ligaments that support a toe. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that connect bones to each other. The injury is called turf toe because it often occurs in football and soccer players when playing on artificial turf.
Turf Toe Swelling
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Causes

Turf toe occurs when the big toe is forced to extend beyond its normal range of motion. This can be caused by:
  • Standing on the balls of your feet as another person falls onto you, causing your big toe to hyperextend
  • Stopping suddenly when running, causing your big toe to slide into the end of your shoe and bend up and backward as you go forward

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chances of getting turf toe include:
  • Sports such as:
    • Football
    • Soccer
    • Rugby
    • Basketball
    • Running
    • Gymnastics
    • Dancing
  • Poor coordination
  • Increased ankle dorsiflexion
  • Wearing athletic shoes with flexible soles
  • Playing sports on artificial turf

Symptoms

Symptoms include:
  • Pain and tenderness in the ball of the foot and the big toe
  • Swelling and bruising of the ball of the foot and the big toe
  • Inability to bear weight on the ball of the injured foot
  • Inability to push off on the big toe
  • Reduced range of motion in the big toe

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and how you injured your toe. An exam of your toe will be done to assess the stability of the joint and the severity of the injury.Your doctor may need pictures of your foot. This can be done with:

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