(Z-E Syndrome; Gastrinoma)
DefinitionZollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that arises from tumors and causes ulcers in the digestive system. One or more tumors form in the pancreas or duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine). Not only can these tumors lead to ulcers, they can also be cancerous, and spread to the nearby lymph nodes or liver.About one-quarter of people with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have a genetic disorder called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). People with MEN 1 may have additional endocrine tumors in the brain and neck.
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CausesZollinger-Ellison syndrome is caused by gastrin-producing tumors, called gastrinomas. Gastrin is a hormone that stimulates the stomach to produce acid. Excess acid production may lead to ulcers in the stomach or duodenum.
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your chance of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome include:
- Your or family members with MEN 1
- History of endocrine disorders
- Recurrent peptic ulcers
SymptomsIn many people, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome causes symptoms similar to an ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Symptoms may include:
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea or vomiting
- Weight loss
- Blood in the vomit or stool
DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.Tests may include:
- Blood tests—specifically to look for elevated levels of the hormone gastrin or evidence of MEN 1
- Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy—a flexible tube with a light and camera is inserted down the throat and into the stomach and intestine to look for ulcers
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