Diabetes Insipidus

Definition

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where water in the body is improperly removed from the circulatory system by the kidneys.There are two forms of diabetes insipidus (DI):
  • Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)

Causes

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. ADH is made in the hypothalamus of the brain. The pituitary gland, at the base of the brain, stores and releases ADH. Central DI occurs when the hypothalamus does not make enough ADH. NDI occurs when the kidneys do not respond to ADH.Some diabetes insipidus is caused by genetic problems that lead to central DI or NDI. Others may develop after an injury or illness.
Pituitary Gland
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Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of diabetes insipidus include:
  • Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary glands due to surgery, infection, stroke, tumor , or head injury
  • Certain conditions such as sarcoidosis , tuberculosis , and granulomatosis with polyangiitis
  • Certain medicines such as lithium—the most common cause of diabetes insipidus
  • Kidney disease such as polycystic kidney disease
  • Protein malnutrition
  • Certain conditions such as hypercalcemia and hypokalemia

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:
  • Increased urination, especially during the night
  • Extreme thirst
  • Dehydration —fast heart rate, dry skin and mouth

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