Diabetes Insipidus

Definition

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where water in the body is improperly removed from the circulatory system by the kidneys.There are 2 forms of DI:
  • Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)

Causes

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. ADH is made in the hypothalamus of the brain. The pituitary gland, at the base of the brain, stores and releases ADH. Central DI occurs when the hypothalamus does not make enough ADH. NDI occurs when the kidneys do not respond to ADH.Some diabetes insipidus is caused by genetic problems that lead to central DI or NDI. Others may develop after an injury or illness.
Pituitary Gland
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Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of DI include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:
  • Increased urination, especially during the night
  • Extreme thirst
  • Dehydration—fast heart rate, dry skin and mouth

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