Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation
DefinitionIslet cells are the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the transfer of islet cells from a donor to another person. The procedure is being studied as a method to treat select people with chronic, uncontrolled type 1 (and some type 2) diabetes.
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Reasons for ProcedurePancreatic islet cells are made up of alpha and beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. They are destroyed by the body's own immune system. Without these cells, the body is unable to make insulin. As a result, people with type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections.Transplants are most commonly used for persons with recurrent severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugars) and/or who are also receiving kidney transplants. Newly transplanted islet cells can produce insulin. This allows better daily control of the blood sugars with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia occurs when too much insulin is self-injected or when injected insulin to fails to adapt to changes in the body's glucose use. The transplant reduces, or even may eliminate, the need for self-injection.
Possible ComplicationsProblems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
- Toxicity from immunosuppressive agents
- Injury to the liver or the pancreas
- Cholesterol problems
- Sensitization—Formation of islet cell antibodies that increase the chance of rejection for this or any future transplant. This may occur from a previous transplants, a blood transfusion, or pregnancy.
- Return of diabetes symptoms that need to be treated with resumption or increased use of self-injected insulin
- Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
- Blood clots
- Worsening of kidney function
- Worsening of high blood pressure