(PAN; Periarteritis Nodosa)
DefinitionPolyarteritis nodosa is an autoimmune disease. Your immune system is your body’s defense system. It fights diseases and infections. An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your body's immune system mistakenly attacks your own body. With polyarteritis nodosa, medium-sized arteries and, less commonly, small arteries become inflamed and damaged. The inflammation of the arteries affects many different organs.
CausesThe cause of polyarteritis nodosa is unknown. In relatively rare cases, however, it occurs with hepatitis B virus infection or hairy cell leukemia.
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your chance of developing polyarteritis nodosa include:
- Age: 40 to 60 years old, although it can occur at any age
- Gender: More common in males
- Hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection
- Hairy cell leukemia
- IV drug use
SymptomsPolyarteritis nodosa is a multisystem disease. This means that it affects many parts of your body at the same time. It can affect organs such as the skin, kidney, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.Often, you will experience headache, fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, and fever. Other symptoms include:
- Open sores on the skin
- Small bumps under the skin
- Death of skin tissues
Cut-Away View of Skin with Bruise Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
- Nervous system:
- Tingling, burning, pain, or numbness in your feet, hands, legs, arms, and face
- Decreased alertness
- Inability to think clearly
- Protein in the urine
- Hypertension—high blood pressure
- Pain in the abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
- Bloody and non-bloody diarrhea
- Heart problems
- Vision problems
Detachment of Retina Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
- Genital sores
DiagnosisThere is no single test to diagnose polyarteritis nodosa. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
TreatmentEarly diagnosis and treatment of polyarteritis nodosa may improve the outcome. Treatment may be vigorous, with the goal being to reduce the inflammation of the arteries and put the condition into remission.Without treatment, the condition may be fatal. Complications from polyarteritis nodosa include stroke, kidney failure, heart attack, and permanent tissue damage of the intestines.Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
- Corticosteroids—High doses of these steroids can reduce inflammation of the arteries.
- Immunosuppressive drugs—Suppressing the immune system helps decrease inflammation of the arteries by countering the body’s autoimmune reaction.
- Antiviral drugs—When hepatitis B or C is present, antiviral medications are helpful in addition to immunosuppressive drugs.
PreventionThere is no known way to prevent polyarteritis nodosa.
Polyarteritis Nodosa Research and Support Network
Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium
Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders
Canadian Rheumatology Association
Polyarteritis nodosa. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated February 27, 2012. Accessed August 6, 2013.
Types of vasculitis: polyarteritis nodosa. The Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsvasculitis.org/types-vasculitis/polyarteritis-nodosa/. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013