(Sialadenitis; Salivary Gland Infection)
DefinitionParotitis is inflammation in one or both of the parotid glands. These are two large salivary glands that are inside each cheek over the jaw in front of each ear.Parotitis can be:
- Acute—inflammation that resolves in a short period of time with or without treatment
- Chronic—includes persistent inflammation or alternating periods of flare-ups and remission
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CausesAn inflamed parotid gland has several causes. These vary depending on whether the condition is acute or chronic. The most common causes include:
- Bacterial infection
- Other viral infections
- Blockage of saliva flow
- Autoimmune diseases
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your chance of parotitis include:
- Dehydration and/or malnutrition
- Recent surgery
- Increased age
- Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer
- Medical conditions, such as:
- Blocked saliva flow, resulting from:
- Salivary stone in the parotid gland
- Mucus plug in a salivary duct
- Tumor—usually benign
- Psychiatric conditions, such as depression or eating disorders
- Use of certain medications
- Poor oral hygiene
SymptomsAcute parotitis may cause:
- Sudden facial pain and swelling that worsens with salivation or after eating
- Redness and tenderness
- Pus may drain into the mouth
- Swelling around the parotid gland
- Dry mouth
- Milky secretions
- Strange or foul taste in your mouth
- Fever, chills, and other signs of infection
DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. This may be enough to make a diagnosis. Tests may include a blood test and a fluid sample from the parotid gland.Imaging tests evaluate the parotid gland and surrounding structures. These may include:
TreatmentTreatment depends on what is causing the parotitis. Options may include:
Good Oral HygieneFlossing and thorough tooth brushing at least twice per day may help with healing. Warm salt-water rinses can help keep the mouth moist. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways you can quit.
MedicationsMedications may include:
- Antibiotics for bacterial infections (antibiotics are not effective for viral infections)
- Anti-inflammatory drugs to manage inflammation and pain
Blockage RemovalYour doctor may need to remove a stone, tumor, or other blockage. Increasing saliva flow may be all that is needed to remove a mucus plug.
PreventionTo help reduce your chances of parotitis:
- Get prompt treatment for any infections.
- See your dentist for proper oral care as recommended.
- Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day to avoid dehydration.
- Receive the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination if you have not yet been vaccinated
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Library of Medicine
Public Health Agency of Canada
Acute suppurative parotitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 21, 2010. Accessed August 28, 2014.
Cain A. Parotitis. Net Doctor website. Available at: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/parotitis.htm. Updated October 4, 2005. Accessed August 28, 2014.
Chitre VV, Premchandra DJ. Review: recurrent parotitis. Arch Dis Child. 1997;77:359-363.
Wilson KF, Meier JD, et al. Salivary gland disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2014;9(11):882-888.
- Reviewer: Fabienne Daguilh, MD
- Review Date: 06/2014
- Update Date: 05/11/2013