1 See my article, “From the Heart of the Qur’an Belt,” Religious Studies News, May2003, available online (with other sources on the controversy) at (accessed February 12, 2011).

2 For a detailed sociological study of the actual attitudes of American Muslims toward extremist violence, see David Schanzer, Charles Kurzman, and Ebrahim Moosa, “Anti-Terror Lessons of Muslim- Americans,” Report for the National Institute of Justice, January 6, 2010, Terror_Lessons.pdf (accessed February 12, 2011). See also Charles Kurzman’s collection, “Islamic Statements against Terrorism,” (accessed February 12, 2011).

3 The extent to which we do not understand the details of this process is underlined by Andrew Rippin’s foreword, in John Wansbrough, Qur'anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation, ed. Andrew Rippin (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 2004[1977]), xv–xviii.

4 Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London: Routledge,1988).

5 Alexander Stille, “Radical New Views of Islam and the Origins of the Koran,” New York Times, March 2, 2002, (accessed February12, 2011).

6 Peter Wright, email communication, May 23, 2010.

7 Carl W. Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003).

8 Journal of Qur'anic Studies, published by Edinburgh University Press since 1999; The Blackwell Companion to the Qur’an, ed. Andrew Rippin (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006); The Cambridge Companion to the Qur’an, ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); The Koran, ed. Colin Turner, Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies, 4 vols. (London: Routledge Curzon, 2004); The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia,ed. Oliver Leaman (London: Routledge, 2008); The Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, ed.Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 6 vols. (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2002–7).

9 John B. Gabel, Charles B. Miller, and Anthony York, The Bible as Literature: An Intro

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