Beer B. C.
When domesticated wheat became the mainstay of the Middle East, its nomads had to settle down. Much effort went into preserving its harvest until the Sumerians hit the jackpot: literally overnight yeast spores in the air transformed their grain into something tastier and more nourishing than cracked wheat. The early 20th Century Victorian archeologists who found shards of their cuneiform recipes declared Sumerians mastered fermentation to make bread, but late in the Century, American brewers scientifically proved the Sumerians only made bread to get starter for beer. The brew was a sacred substance because it was far more nutritious and tasty than bread, safer to drink than water, and loosened inhibition to make people more social—thus life-giving in every way.