Science and SpiritReprinted with permission from the November/December 2004 issue of Science and Spirit.

Have you ever fallen flat on your face? Can you read the writing on the wall? Do you ever think about escaping, perhaps by the skin of your teeth before it's too late? When things are going well, do you look for the fly in the ointment? If you answered "Yes" to these questions, you are in good company.

Shakespeare, however, never fell flat on his face. He couldn't read the writing on the wall, never once escaped by the skin of his teeth, and his ointment was always free of flies. The Bard, that great master of vocabulary and wordplay, could do none of these things, for these metaphors did not enter the English language until close to the time of his death in 1616. Like so much of the English language, these quaint and timeless expressions were borrowed from another tongue-in this case, Hebrew.

The introduction of classical Hebrew phrases into the language-one of the most interesting developments in the shaping of Modern English-dates from the early seventeenth century with the arrival of the King James Bible. King James I, anxious to ensure religious stability in England, agreed to the production of this new English translation of the Bible. It was expected to be the best ever, drawing on a translation team of about fifty leading scholars. Six teams were assembled at Oxford, Cambridge, and Westminster, and each was entrusted with the task of translating part of the work.

The authors of The Story of English, a companion to the PBS television series on the history of the English language, point out that, "The King James Bible was published in the year Shakespeare began work on his last play, The Tempest. Both the play and the Bible are masterpieces of English, but there is one crucial difference between them. Whereas Shakespeare ransacked the lexicon, the King James Bible employs a bare 8,000 words-God's teaching in homely English for everyman."

True, the Bible used plain and common words, but as American Rabbi William Rosenau observes, it took those words and "molded new forms and phrases, which, while foreign to the English, became with it flesh and bone." Here's what happened: The translators believed the best way of ensuring accuracy was to translate each and every word of the original, one by one. This literal translation of the Old Testament's Hebrew introduced a large number of new, and somewhat unusual, phrases into the English language.

"The [King James Bible] is an almost literal translation of the Masoretic text, and is thus on every page replete with Hebrew idioms," writes Rosenau in Hebraisms in the Authorized Version of the Bible, a careful study of the way in which the King James Bible translated Hebrew expressions. "The fact that Bible English has to a marvellous extent shaped our speech, giving peculiar connotations to many words and sanctioning strange constructions, is not any less patent."

Because the Bible's publicly accessible style could be widely imitated, the new phrases were easily absorbed, often unconsciously, within everyday language. Soon, without anyone completely appreciating what was happening, they began to shape written and spoken English.

"The [King James Bible] has been-it can be said without any fear of being charged with exaggeration-the most powerful factor in the history of English literature," Rosenau claims. "Though the constructions encountered in the [King James Bible] are oftentimes so harsh that they seem almost barbarous, we should certainly have been the poorer without it."

Initially, the language of the King James Bible might have seemed odd. We know that some people found it unnatural, artificial, and stilted. John Selden, a seventeenth-century Hebrew scholar of considerable distinction, doubted whether the widespread use of Hebrew idioms would make sense to the unlearned English public. He insisted that translation required conversion of Hebrew idioms into real English, not Hebraised English.

"If I translate a French book into English, I turn it into English phrase and not into French English. `Il fait froid': I say `it is cold,' not `it makes cold,'" he explained. "But the Bible is translated into English words rather than English phrases. The Hebraisms are kept and the phrase of that language is kept. As for example, `he uncovered her shame,' which is well enough so long as scholars have to do with it, but when it comes among the common people, Lord what gear do they make of it." It is interesting to note that Selden's English makes perfect sense to modern readers until he lapses into the slang of his period. ("Gear" is here best translated as "nonsense"!)

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