Reading Paul is a bit like climbing a mountain; there are many routes up and those who are used only to the easy tourist path sometimes forget that scaling the vertical crags is not only more exciting but might perhaps get you to the top more quickly. And part of the excitement of reading Paul is the fact that he straddled at least three worlds, so that whatever he says demands to be heard within three different echo chambers, which may or may not have been audible to one another even though Paul intended them to resonate simultaneously. Only if we bear each of them in mind will we have any chance of understanding the contours of his writing.
The first world, the one by which he ascended the mountain, was of course Judaism. Second-Temple Judaism has been studied more in the last generation than in the previous millennium, and new research continues to pour out on Scrolls, Pharisees, early Rabbis, and so on, not to mention the relevant archaeological discoveries. Yet a broadly coherent picture can and does emerge from the confusing mass of information, just as the climber can pick out the main rivers and roads without necessarily being able to see how every lane and stream join up. Second-Temple Judaism was a many-sided and vibrant mixture of what we would now call (though they would not have recognized these distinctions) religion, faith, culture and politics. But even its clashing elements were usually clashing about the same issues: what it meant to be part of God's people, to be loyal to Torah, to maintain Jewish identity in the face of the all-encroaching pagan world, and (above all in the view of some) to await the coming of God's kingdom, of the 'age to come' promised by the prophets, of Israel's redemption, hoping that when that day dawned one might have a share in the coming vindication and blessing.
This was the world from which Paul came, and in which he remained even though he said things which nobody within that world had thought of saying before and which many in that world found shocking, even destructive.
And it was the world rulers of Paul's day, and the world which they were bent on creating, that formed the third sphere Paul inhabited. Paul, to the surprise of some both then and now, was a Roman citizen, and if we take even a moderate view of the historicity of Acts he seems to have made good occasional use of the privilege. But he was not an uncritical inhabitant of Caesar's domain. His positioning of himself within the Roman empire, with its ideology and burgeoning emperor-cult, is a theme much discussed today.
The Roman context integrates closely with the other two. Judaism had a tradition of critique of pagan empire, stretching back nearly a millennium, with Egypt and the Exodus as its ultimate backdrop. It was not hard for a first-century Jew to retell the old stories of oppression and liberation and envisage a new actor playing the lead villain. The first time I attended a Purim celebration, in West Jerusalem in 1989, it was not difficult, to the embarrassment of my Jewish hosts, to see whowas playing the role of Haman and his sons.
And when Paul believed that Israel's God had at last sent his Messiah to be the world's rightful Lord, the clash of worlds, the rebirth of images, became inevitable, generating new theological as well as political questions and possibilities. Paul remained firmly within the Jewish tradition in his response to Rome. At the same time, Roman ideology and cult drew on the Hellenistic world for its philosophical and ideological underpinnings. We should never forget that most of the Roman world, and a fair slice of the capital city itself, spoke Greek as its first and sometimes its only language. Paul lived, worked, thought and wrote within a complex and multiply integrated world. Though his phrase 'all things to all people' often now seems merely to indicate someone prepared to trim their sails to every passing wind, Paul meant it in a more robust sense. He had been entrusted with a Jewish message for the whole world, and part of the way in which the message was to get out was by his embodying, in ways that have caused some then and now to raise an eyebrow, the outreach of Israel's one true God to the wider world of the Gentiles. Paul remained a firm monotheist, and explored and exploited that belief, as we shall see, to the full.