James: Several New Testament passages (read them in context) refer to Jesus' siblings, including James. In Matthew 13:55-56, villagers are skeptical of Jesus' powers, saying: "Is not this the carpenter's son? ...Are not his brothers James and Joseph Simon and Judas? Are not his sisters with us?"
In addition to gospel references, the "brother of the Lord" is mentioned in several New Testament books. 1 Corinthians says that the risen Jesus appeared to James, and several sections of Acts detail James' leadership of Jerusalem's early Christians. While it's difficult to piece together what James' attitude toward his brother might have been before Jesus' crucifixion, it seems clear that James became a Christian afterward.
The first-century Jewish historian Josephus also refers to James. Josephus' account is one of the best non-biblical proofs we have that Jesus had a brother. This text, which scholars consider generally reliable, describes "James, the brother of Jesus who was called the Christ," according to Biblical Archaeology Review. Josephus' account says that James was condemned to death in 62 C.E.--about 30 years after the death of Jesus, during the rule of the Roman governor Festus. "He was able to live in relationship both with Christian Jews and non-Christian Jews, and in fact when he was executed by the high priest it eventually caused the high priest to be dismissed," says scholar John Dominic Crossan, member of the liberal Jesus Seminar. "In other words, he had pretty powerful friends, who probably weren't Christian."
The recent find doesn't add to historical knowledge about James, though the box--if and when it is placed on public display--will likely drive much more interest in James.
Above: Protestant (#1), Eastern Orthodox (#2), and Catholic (#3) views of Jesus' family. Source: Biblical Archaeology Review
Mary: Despite her prominence in some Christian traditions, the gospels say relatively little about Jesus' mother. Luke 1:26 says Mary was a young girl or virgin (scholars debate the meaning of "parthenos," the Greek word used) when she conceived Jesus. However, both Luke and the first chapter of Matthew relate that Mary conceived Jesus "by the Holy Spirit." This is the basis for the traditional belief, shared by virtually all Christian denominations, in the virgin birth.
However, the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches teach that Mary remained a virgin all her life, even after the birth of Jesus. Catholic scholars in particular have carefully scrutinized scriptural accounts that might imply Mary gave birth to additional children. Catholics may be troubled by archaeological evidence corroborating these Bible accounts.
Historically, some Catholic scripture experts have contended that the Greek word "adelphos," used in the New Testament passages which describe Jesus' brothers, can mean a cousin or other relative, not necessarily a blood brother--and therefore, mentions of James did not contradict the belief that Mary remained a virgin.
Others, such as Crossan, read the scripture differently. "In Mark's gospel, Jesus has brothers, four of them in fact. And two sisters," Crossan says. "And his father is Joseph and his mother is Mary....And the normal meaning for brother--well, you mean brother."
The Aramaic inscription on the ossuary of James uses the word "akhui" for brother. According to Protestant scholar Ben Witherington III, both the Aramaic word "akhui" and the Greek word "adelphos" usually refer to a blood brother. Both languages have other words for "cousins or more distant kin," says Witherington.
Some Christians refer to Mark 6:3, where Jesus is called the "son of Mary"--not, as would be expected, the "son of Joseph." That Jesus is called "son of Mary," they say, supports the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the power of the Holy Spirit. The ossuary could be seen as contradicting that argument because in referring to James, the ossuary inscription uses the expression "son of Joseph."