This is an excellent question. Jesus' native tongue was Aramaic, and while certainly we have documents from antiquity written in Aramaic (including part of the book of Daniel), we do not have Jesus' teachings in this language. Rather, the New Testament is written in Greek. It is well to remember, however, that many early Jews were bilingual, including, no doubt, some of Jesus' original followers. The accounts in Acts of Peter preaching to all sorts of people, including Gentiles, suggests that he knew some Greek. This is also suggested by his probable authorship of 1 Peter. This being the case, probably not much is lost in translation if at an early juncture one of Jesus' first followers translated his words from Aramaic into Greek.
There are various prophecies about the Second Coming in the New Testament. I would encourage you to read Mark 13 (read it) in particular. What Mark 13.32 tells us is that not even Jesus himself knew the timing of this event, but he was certain that it would transpire. 1 Thessalonians 4-5 suggests that we will never be able to predict the timing of the Second Coming, for it will arrive without warning, like a thief in the night. Thus the message of the New Testament about this matter is that we must always be prepared, whether it comes sooner or later.
You are correct in thinking that the Jewish Sabbath is from sundown Friday until sundown on Saturday. However, it was not the Romans who changed the day of worship. Early Christians began to worship on Sunday even during New Testament times (see, for example, 1 Corinthians 16.2; Revelation 1.10 gives us the first reference to worship on the Lord's Day). Early Christians worshipped on the first day of the week because it was the day Jesus rose from the dead. This practice is even mentioned in a letter from the Roman governor of Asia Minor--Pliny--to the emperor Trajan in the early second century A.D.
Recently I decided after much thought and consideration to convert from the Roman Catholic Faith into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Since my conversion I have found my faith with Jesus Christ tobecome even greater. I am curious of your thoughts on the Mormon church. Mormons believe, among other things, that Christ appeared in the Americas and that the Book of Mormon is a second companion to theBible. -- Jim M.
Christians in general, and Christian scholars in particular, do not accept the Book of Mormon as a supplement to the Bible. they do not believe it contains historical information, or further revelations from the God of the Bible. Mormonism is a religion which arose in North America in the nineteenth century long after the Bible was written. Christianity had long since been a well-established religion, without a need for a Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon was probably written by Joseph Smith himself; it has some remarkable similarities to nineteenth-century American novels, which Smith seems to have read. Smith seems to have been concerned that the Bible didn't seem to address the plight of Native Americans and, in general, of the peoples of North America. He was concerned there be a revelation specifically for such peoples. While this is a laudable concern, the Bible is quite specific that the revelation given 2,000 years ago is for all peoples in all lands in all times, and needs no supplement.