In the first century, the Jewish people went through the greatest tragedy of its history (up until the 20th century)--the destruction of the Second Holy Temple. During the long exile from the Land of Israel that followed, the rabbis shaped and reshaped Judaism. The transformed religion accomplished an almost unbelievable feat--sustaining a landless, persecuted minority through a stunning range of historical vicissitudes.
In that first, tumultuous century, a small band of Jews took up with a remarkable, if obscure, Jewish teacher. They made little headway among Jews, but when they turned to preach to gentiles, they achieved a sensational level of acceptance--and in the process, their doctrines, beliefs, and practices were transformed into the religion known as Christianity.
After Christianity triumphed among gentiles, the deep-rootedness of this faith in the Jewish Bible and tradition paradoxically drove it toward unrelenting hostility to Jewry. As believing Jews, the original Christians drew religious authority and values from biblical Judaism--an earlier version of the Judaism practiced at that time. Since they derived religious authority from earlier Judaism, the Christians became rivals of Jewry, fighting for control of the very understanding of the Jewish tradition and its claims.
Christians had to answer a burning question: If the vast majority of the original Jews who knew Jesus personally did not accept the faith now preached in his name\, did this not undermine Christianity's religious claims? Christians could have repudiated Judaism and its religious texts. But to their credit, mainstream Christians clung to the validity of the Abrahamic covenant, thereby upholding the eternity of God's promises. However, they could not conceive that God was reaching out pluralistically--meaning God's word was revealed to Jews through Judaism, and to gentiles through Christianity. Rather, in their understanding, either Judaism or Christianity was the true continuation of the past, and the other faith was therefore an imposter.
Christians resolved to win the conflict by de-legitimating Jews and Judaism. Did Jews reject Jesus? The Christian explanation was that Jews were made arrogant by their experience of being the chosen people; they were spiritually blind and religiously decadent. Jews "missed" the new message and instead lived a life of legalism and empty rituals and deeds. Over the years, Jewish behavior was colored even more darkly: Jews were portrayed as Christ killers, a people guilty of deicide; they were children of the devil who practiced ritual child murders, and so forth. The Christian choices devolved into converting the Jews, expelling them, or in various outbursts, killing them. The "nice guy" Christian version was to ghettoize Jews, treat them like pariahs, make them suffer but keep them alive, until the Jews finally repented and became Christians.
Judaism reciprocated the teaching of contempt. Christianity was dismissed as a religion practiced by morally and culturally inferior gentiles, based on unbelievable claims (God-in-the-flesh, virgin births), degenerating into idolatry (either in the statues of saints or in the representations of the incarnation of God in Jesus). Kindred faiths became enemies. Henceforth, the two religions talked past each other, and viewed each other as the enemy.
It took an extraordinary concert of forces to transform this implacable hostility. One factor was modern culture disseminating the principles of equality and dignity of all people. It became harder to preach contempt for another people and treat its religion as inherently inferior without losing one's own credibility in a culture of universal human dignity.
The third force was the growing power of secularism, which was eroding all religious claims. Many spiritual leaders concluded that it was more important to form religious alliances to battle secularism, materialism, and anomie than to fight and wound each other. The outcome was a growing dialogue among religions, leading to listening and learning from each other.