|St. Peter's Church in Olney, MD|
Stark-looking on the outside, with stadium-like, fan-shaped seating on the inside framing the altar on three sides and hardly a statue or a stained-glass window to be seen, Resurrection and St. Peter's, each of which serves more than 2,000 families, stand out in the generally staid Washington area. In the city proper, churches tend to look more conventional. The interior design of both churches can best be described as minimalist: plain wooden altar furnishings at Resurrection; a thin, bare cross that looks like two television antennae behind the altar at St. Peter's, whose walls are painted blazing white inside and out.
The ultra-modern Resurrection and St. Peter's once seemed to represent the Catholic Church's architectural face of the future--but now they may not. On Nov. 16, the National Conference of Catholic Bishops approved a lengthy document giving official guidelines for Catholic church design. Titled "Built of Living Stones: Art, Architecture, and Worship," it is the first directive the U.S. bishops have ever issued on one of the most contentious arenas of argument between liberal and conservative Catholics.
Traditionalists and progressives in the Catholic Church have been battling since the end of the Second Vatican Council over such issues as where to place the tabernacle housing the Eucharist (traditionalists prefer a central altar, while progressives, who say the tabernacle distracts from the Mass, prefer it off to one side); how much statuary is appropriate (traditionalists like lots of images of Mary and the saints, while progressives don't); and whether the altar should be set off in a formal sanctuary or democratically located in the center of the church (traditionalists prefer the former, while progressives prefer the latter).
At the heart of the squabbles is a dispute over whether a church building should be "multivalent"--designed for private prayer and adoration as well as the Mass--or whether its design should be more "monovalent," focusing solely on facilitating the communal Sunday liturgy.
Until "Built of Living Stones" appeared late last year, the liberals seemed to be winning the war. In 1978, a bishops' liturgy committee issued a booklet titled "Environment and Art in Catholic Worship," which seemed a manifesto for tearing down or gutting ornate pre-Vatican II churches and replacing them with minimalist structures, unadorned inside and out. The 1970s marked the height of the influence of the Bauhaus, the utilitarian German modernist school of architecture. Nearly all the churches photographed in "Environment and Art" reflect the input of church-design consultant Frank Kacmarcik, a friend and disciple of Marcel Breuer, a leading light of the Bauhaus who designed the monster-size, modular concrete headquarters of the Housing and Urban Development Department in Washington. Although the U.S. bishops as a body never formally approved "Environment and Art," it functioned for more than 20 years as a catechism for liturgical-design progressives, who dotted the Catholic architectural landscape with church buildings that some found austerely elegant, others disappointingly plain.
"Built of Living Stones" supersedes "Environment and Art." It puts the kibosh on some of the most avant-garde of the last two decades' architectural innovations, requiring church designers to place the altar in a distinct sanctuary area instead of in the middle of the building, to equip all seats with kneelers or cushions (a feature that progressive church designers often omit), and to house the tabernacle in a special place of reverence, such as a side chapel, instead of just a box in the wall, as in some modernistic churches.