The cloning issue has become an issue of great public interest and here is a group that took the most radical position on it. Their overall thought was that human beings were a product of cloning by extraterrestrials, and hence they have looked to cloning as a means of immortality. Their idea is first to develop the technology of cloning and second, to add to it their special spiritual technology which Raël claims to have. He believes they can move the essence of the self from one body to its clone. So when the body wears out you can simply latch onto another body. Which implies an understanding of the self which may be problematic. Cloning is one thing, immortality quite another.
What are Raëlians like?
I've visited with them a time or two. They're just normal people who've got some weird beliefs. Some of them are very intelligent. A number of them are professionals, people with Ph.Ds and scientific credentials. One of the reasons they're in Canada is they lost their jobs in France during the last seven years when France was on a big anti-cult campaign. A number of their scientists who had secular jobs that had nothing to do with religion [were found to be Raëlians] and they were fired. So they pulled up roots and moved to Canada.
Can you explain what makes the Raëlians a religion?
A religion is a group that has a belief in transcendent reality, an ethic based upon that belief, and a community that worships.
They have rituals?
Oh yes. There are quite a number of different kinds of rituals. They have the equivalent of baptism initiation rituals, and as you reach various levels of the group there are ceremonies that accompany them. There are priests and gatherings that are the equivalent of worship. They have a much more Eastern worldview, so that they don't have a kingly deity to whom they bow down and worship directly, but certainly they have rituals that embody their belief system.
So Raëlianism is still a religion even though its followers are atheists.
Well, Theravada Buddhists are atheists. The Jains are atheistic. That's why we talk about transcendent reality. Some of the New Age groups believe transcendent reality is purely personal. It's not "out there," it's "in here." But it's still religion.
Do you think it's possible any of their beliefs would become mainstream in the future?
I think it's highly unlikely.
Cloning is a fact of life. They didn't start the research on cloning and they won't finish it. They will participate in it as one player. But the whole idea of cloning is bigger than they are.
The beliefs they have that go with cloning are the beliefs that in the long run will test the religion because they believe not only in cloning, but also that cloning is a means toward immortality. After you do cloning, then you've got to do the second process, which is to get the consciousness, the essence of the self, from one person to the cloned person. That's the dubious part of their belief.
Perfecting cloning is just a matter of time and research and that's moving forward in various places quietly, hidden from public view. But the process of gaining immortality? That's a whole other issue.
Does the fact that the Raëlians emerged in the last three decades have anything to do with the emergence of technology? Can we put them in context?
What you have beginning in the 19th century is the emergence of science, and then technology comes along and makes that science real. Technology has continued to grow and expand and at different points different groups have latched onto a technology.
We think of channeling groups-they come out of television channels. The UFO groups from the 1950s that were into space travel. Spiritualist groups from the early 20th Century latched onto the telephone. The medium had a "telephone conversation" with the beyond. Groups ride a technology for a decade or two. But what happens is that the technology goes off and leaves you because technology is continually growing and changing and the popularity quickly leaves you behind.
Are Raëlians apocalyptic?
Not in the sense that the Branch Davidians were. But it's got a kind of a millennial edge to it because of the fact that the folks in the group are getting older now, so there's an urgency to get this done now or they're going to die and go away and miss the immortality they've been working all their lives for.
How old are they?
Raël's got to be in his 60s. His followers are 10 years younger than he is, mostly, the ones I have met.