In 1409, the great Tibetan philosopher, saint, monastic teacher, and social reformer, Tsong Khapa Losang Drakpa (1357-1419) gathered the donations of all the major patrons of Tibetan Buddhism and organized the first Great Prayer Festival in Lhasa. He invited all the people of Tibet to a two-week-long festival of prayer, auspicious ritual, teachings, and celebrations, from the first new moon until the full moon of the lunar New Year. Many hundreds of thousands, perhaps more than a million, came from near and far.
He chose that time of year because of his firm belief in the legendarystory about the life of the founder of Buddhism, Shakyamuni Buddha (ca.563-483 BCE), told in the Indian Buddhist Sutra of the Wise and the Foolish called "Overcoming the Six Teachers." In that story, the Buddha is challenged by six rival teachers to a contest of miraculous performances. For many years, the Buddha evaded their challenges, letting people believe that he was afraid of their magical powers, losing his royal patrons, and causing doubts and worries to grow among the people.
Finally, in the city of Shravasti, the Buddha accepts the challenge and stands before a huge assembly of people from all the central north Indian city-states. He proceeds to perform miracle after miracle during the first fortnight of the lunar New Year. The rival teachers are eclipsed almost immediately, as the Buddha produced spectacular manifestations. He threw down a toothpick and grew a giant wish-granting gem tree ten times bigger than the White House Christmas tree. He rinsed his mouth with scented water, and celestial lakes with divine ducks and jewel lotuses appeared. He concentrated and emitted rays of light, and apparitions of angelic hosts of cosmic buddhas and bodhisattvas and gods and angels filled the skies.
Teachings of liberation and awakening, reverberating in every language known to man, illumined the minds of all assembled. He even manifested a vision of himself multiplying infinitely, his compassionate energy becoming clearly present to everyone's awareness in micro-embodiments in every subatomic particle in the universe.
|It is said that during that first Great Prayer Festival in 1409, all the people gathered in Lhasa themselves beheld visions solidly present in space, with heavenly hosts of buddhas and divine beings filling the sky like sesame seeds filling a jar.|
This event in mythic history marks for Tibetans the triumph of the Buddha's enlightenment, the force of wisdom and compassion, over human ignorance and social routines of injustice, pretension, and unkindness. When Tsong Khapa attained his own definitive enlightenment 11 years earlier in 1398, he experienced numerous visions of this great apocalyptic moment in Shakyamuni Buddha's life, and vowed to commemorate it in his own teachings and performances.
It is said that during that first Great Prayer Festival in 1409, all the people gathered in Lhasa themselves beheld similar visions solidly present in space, with heavenly hosts of buddhas and divine beings filling the sky like sesame seeds filling a jar. For the whole two weeks, the routine business of the city was suspended. Everyone got into their most religious mood and spent the whole time as if on a spiritual retreat, praying, studying, making offerings, teaching and learning, debating meaningful philosophical topics, and celebrating in ways both solemn and merry.
From 1409, then, the Great Prayer Festival was held every year almostwithout interruption until the flight of His Holiness the Dalai Lama into exile in 1959. Since then it has been held in the capital in exile, Dharamsala, India. Many arts and crafts developed from the traditions associated with it, and it had a major impact in the development of Tibet's unique Dharma-oriented society over the subsequent centuries.