I reached this conclusion after I began wondering whether it was really fair to hold Vatican II responsible for forces that might have been at work in the Catholic Church long before Pope John XXIII convened the council in 1962. After 1945, the year of the war's end and the axial year of this century, the educational level of Catholics increased dramatically. If you permit people to attend college and learn to think for themselves, however poorly, then they are likely to want to make their own decisions and not simply obey when they are told what they can do and cannot do.
I tested this hypothesis with two sets of data--the Catholic Schools Studies of the 1960s and 1970s, and the National Opinion Research Center's survey of social attitudes during that time. The studies showed no correlation between the level of education of the respondents, who had come of age around the time of Vatican II, and their attitudes on such matters as premarital sex and homosexuality. So it first appeared that my hunch was wrong. But then I looked at the schooling levels of the respondents' parents, who had come of age as World War II ended. First, fathers. Again, there was no correlation between the amount of education the respondents' fathers had received and the sexual attitudes of their offspring. Again, it seemed my theory was wrong.
But when I turned to the respondents' mothers, I discovered that the level of their education did correlate strongly with their children's dissent from official Catholic teaching on sexual matters. Both men and women whose mothers went to college were substantially more likely to be dissidents than those whose mothers' education had stopped with high school. So it clearly had been a mistake to let Catholic women learn how to think for themselves.
Church leaders used to pretend--and many of them still do--that feminists were only a tiny minority of their flocks. The women that priests knew in the old days--mothers, grandmothers, aunts, sisters, nieces--were the still the good, solid, obedient Catholic laywomen they had always known, weren't they? Those women didn't want women to be ordained priests, did they? They weren't feminists, were they?
One does not hear that response so often these days. Now, only priests who are blind and deaf doubt that many Catholic women tend to be very angry at the all-male church leadership that presumes to tell them what to do, whether that leadership be in the local parish or at the Vatican. My research suggests not only that better-educated Catholic women are more likely to be dissidents, but that they transfer their dissidence to their sons and daughters. Mothers are the primary teachers in the family, Church leaders have always said--in the comfortable assumption that mothers were on the Church leaders' side. In his 1995 letter to women, for example, Pope John Paul II described the mother as "the anchor as the child makes its way along the journey of life." Now, it seems that mothers are still the primary teachers, but they're on the other side.
The traditionalist view of this state of affairs--exemplified by Cardinal Josef Ratzinger, head of the Vatican's Congregation for the Defense of the Faith--is that these women have simply lost their faith. Otherwise they would obey the Church. However, most of them would reply that their faith is as good as the cardinal's, and that when it comes to the sexuality of women, he and the other men who run the Church don't know what they're talking about.