In the movie, Saint and Mincayani only make their peace once Saint is an adult. In reality, it happened much sooner. Saint lived as a child with his mother and aunt in the Waodani village, forging a friendship then Mincaye. Saint later left to live in the United States, where he had a successful career as a businessman, before deciding to go back to Ecuador, where he and his wife still live. (That bit of fictionalization--changing the timeline--led the filmmakers to change Mincaye's name slightly, since the character did not fully reflect all the details of Mincaye's real life.)

Saint decided to move back to the Waodani village after traveling to Ecuador to help bury his aunt.

"They [the Waodani] told me that's what they had decided for me to do," Saint said. "They didn't ask--they told. The only time Waodani can tell you what to do is if you are in the extended family.... If you didn't come, the assumption was that you didn't care for them or were angry and might intend to do them harm."

It wasn't an easy decision or one he made eagerly. But Saint and his wife made the decision to go.

"I didn't want to go back, I couldn't imagine I could do anything more to help them because they had been the recipients of so much largesse [from oil companies that had moved into the area], but I could not risk jeopardizing the relationship that was so dear to me," he said.

In the movie, both Saint and his father are played by actor Chad Allen (though Saint himself did the stunt flying for his father's character). In the press notes, writer/director Jim Hanon explains, "We were telling the story with as much insight and authenticity from the Waodani point of view as we possibly could. They lived in a cycle of revenge where sons were responsible for avenging speared fathers. We wanted the adult Steve Saint, who faces his father's killer, Mincayani, at the end of the film, to look as much like his father in the eyes of Mincayani as we could get away with. We felt it would make the pain, guilt, and subsequent torment in Mincayani's character more personal and pronounced as he faced the son of the man he speared."

If Mincaye was responsible for Saint's survival in the jungle, the positions were reversed when Saint brought Mincaye to America for a visit to help tell their story and solicit humanitarian aid for the tribe.

"Here he's not totally helpless but close to it," Saint said. "He can't read words or numbers, doesn't really know about money, does not understand about cold, and he doesn't want to learn, so I do it for him."

During the credits of "End of the Spear," we see footage of the real-life Saint and Mincaye. Saint explains that Mincaye loves grocery stores because if you just smile, the woman at the cash register lets you take all the food you want. Saint tried to explain that he had given the woman his credit card, but Mincaye said he was not fooled-he saw her give it right back!

As for Mincaye's impression of the United States: He admires the big buildings in America but said (through Saint, who translated), "Our living places are better, you don't have to stack people on top of each other there."

The Waodani, unchanged for millennia, are now in contact with the outside world.

"Once you've been introduced to things like soap, medicine, salt, metal machetes, it would be undesirable to live without access to those things, and they have to be purchased with money," Saint said.

He is deeply concerned that they will become a "welfare community," dependent on handouts from the oil companies that have moved into the territory or from ethnographers, politicians, even church groups who mean well but whose contributions can create dependence. As the tribe began to develop relationships with outsiders, including the oil companies, they for the first time received some of the luxuries of the developed world. They had no experience with even the most rudimentary economy and were not equipped to make informed choices about how best to adapt.

"Nobody has explained to them the cost of taking handouts, what people expect in exchange for what they give. When I did, they said, 'That's why we told you to come and live with us, because you understand this,'" Saint said.

Saint said that the Waodani had beliefs and faith in a creator before encountering the Americans, but they did not have a religion with rituals or an underlying theory about what the creator wanted or the creator's relationship to individuals.

"The Waodani used the same word for creator and for the stone ax heads they had to be able to find in order to get food," Saint said. "No man could support a family without one, yet they never learned to make them. So they used the same word for both, because if the creator did not put the ax heads in their path to find, they would die."

The tribe has a "fairly detailed knowledge of the spirit world" but believes certain people use the spirits to do harm to other people. Tribe members do not have a belief in a power to help or heal. "People think they all became God-followers, but that's not the case," Saint said of the Waodani's experience after befriending the Americans.

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