Question #5: “Who is to condemn?” That’s a good question. Who might Paul have in mind?
If God, well, God has already declared justification in favor of those in Christ.
So, there is no one to condemn.
In fact, there is a brilliant sweep here of showing why there is no condemnation for those in Christ:
First, Christ has died. He died our death; he died the death of others; he died for the sins of others; he died with us, instead of us, and for us. So, there is no condemnation because the punishment of sin, death, has been absorbed.
Second, Christ is risen. He not only died, but he was raised for our justification. By busting the grave, he busted the power of sin. (I know that’s not a word, but it seemed right here.) He arose into the presence of God — and that means that those who are “in Christ” rose with him into the presence of God. So, there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ because they have been raised.
Third, Christ is interceding. Only here in Paul’s letters: Jesus’ intercession for us in the presence of God. So, there is no condemnation because the Son intercedes before the Father as one who has absorbed death, broken the power of death, and blasted into the very presence of God. Nothing like having an advocate in the right place at the right time, and an advocate who is the Father’s precious Son.